Transformation Helpers in .NET

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If you've been following along with this section on transformations, you may have been tempted to reach into the Graphics object's Transform property and call Matrix methods directly: Matrix matrix = new Matrix(); matrixShear(5f, 5f); gTransform = matrix; // works gTransformShear(5f, 5f); // compiles, but doesn't work Although the Transform property will return its Matrix object, it's returning a copy, so performing operations on the copy will have no effect on the transformation matrix of the graphics object However, instead of creating Matrix objects and setting the Transform property all the time, you can use several helper methods of the Graphics class that affect the transformation matrix directly: // Transformation methods of the Graphics class sealed class Graphics : MarshalByRefObject, IDisposable { public void ResetTransform(); public void RotateTransform(); public void ScaleTransform(); public void TranslateTransform(); } These methods are handy for simplifying transformation code (although you'll notice that there's no ShearTransform method): // No new Matrix object required gTranslateTransform(200, 0); gDrawString("(0, 0)", thisFont, BrushesBlack, 0, 0);
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As you've seen in previous chapters, GraphicsPath objects are very similar to Graphics objects, and the similarity extends to transformations A GraphicsPath object can be transformed just as a Graphics object can, and that's handy when you'd like some parts of a drawing, as specified in paths, to be transformed but not others Because a path is a collection of figures to be drawn as a group, a transformation isn't a property to be set and changed; instead, it is an operation that is applied To transform a GraphicsPath, you use the Transform method: GraphicsPath CreateLabeledRectPath(string label) { GraphicsPath path = new GraphicsPath(); // Add rectangle and string return path; } void PathTranslationForm_Paint(object sender, PaintEventArgs e) {
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Graphics g = eGraphics; using( GraphicsPath path = CreateLabeledRectPath("My Path") ) { // Draw at (0, 0) gDrawPath(PensBlack, path); // Translate all points in path by (150, 150) Matrix matrix = new Matrix(); matrixTranslate(150, 150); pathTransform(matrix); gDrawPath(PensBlack, path); } } In addition, GraphicsPath provides transformations that do flattening, widening, and warping via the Flatten, Widen, and Warp methods, respectively (as shown in Figure 68)
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Figure 68 Path Flattening, Widening, and Warping
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Each of these methods takes a Matrix object in case you'd like to, for example, translate and widen at the same time Passing the identity matrix allows each of the specific operations to happen without an additional transformation The Flatten method takes a flatness value; the larger the value, the fewer the number of points used along a curve, and therefore the more "flat"Figure 68 shows an ellipse flattened by 10: // Pass the identity matrix as the first argument to // stop any transformation except for the flattening pathFlatten(new Matrix(), 10); gDrawPath(PensBlack, path); The Widen method takes a Pen whose width is used to widen the lines and curves along the pathFigure 68 shows an ellipse widened by a pen of width 10: using( Pen widenPen = new Pen(ColorEmpty /* ignored */, 10) ) { pathWiden(widenPen); gDrawPath(PensBlack, path); } One of the overloads of the Widen method takes a flatness value, in case you'd like to widen and flatten simultaneously, in addition to the matrix that it also takes for translation The Warp method acts very like the skewing of an image discussed in 4: Drawing Basics Warp takes, at a minimum, a set of points that define a parallelogram that describes the target, and a rectangle that describes a chunk of the source It uses these arguments to skew the source chunk to the destination parallelogram Figure 68 shows the top half of an ellipse skewed left:
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PointF[] destPoints = new PointF[3]; destPoints[0] = new PointF(width/2, 0); destPoints[1] = new PointF(width, height); destPoints[2] = new PointF(0, height/2); RectangleF srcRect = new RectangleF(0, 0, width, height/2); pathWarp(destPoints, srcRect); gDrawPath(PensBlack, path); [ Team LiB ]
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