Formatting in .NET framework

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Formatting
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If you'd like to turn off wrapping or set other formatting options, you can do so with an instance of the StringFormat class: sealed class StringFormat : MarshalByRefObject, ICloneable, IDisposable { // Constructors public StringFormat(); // various overloads // Properties public StringAlignment Alignment { get; set; } public int DigitSubstitutionLanguage { get; } public StringDigitSubstitute DigitSubstitutionMethod { get; } public StringFormatFlags FormatFlags { get; set; } public static StringFormat GenericDefault { get; } public static StringFormat GenericTypographic { get; } public HotkeyPrefix HotkeyPrefix { get; set; } public StringAlignment LineAlignment { get; set; } public StringTrimming Trimming { get; set; } // Methods public float[] GetTabStops(ref Single firstTabOffset); public void SetDigitSubstitution( int language, StringDigitSubstitute substitute); public void SetMeasurableCharacterRanges(CharacterRange[] ranges); public void SetTabStops(float firstTabOffset, float[] tabStops); }
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A StringFormat object lets you set all kinds of interesting text characteristics, such as the tab stops and the alignment (vertically and horizontally) as well as whether to wrap: // Turn off auto-wrapping StringFormat format = new StringFormat(StringFormatFlagsNoWrap); gDrawString("", font, brush, rect, format); The StringFormatFlags enumeration provides a number of options: enum StringFormatFlags { 0, // No flags (default) DirectionRightToLeft, // Draw text right-to-left DirectionVertical, // Draw text up-to-down DisplayFormatControl, // Show format control character glyphs FitBlackBox, // Keep all glyphs inside layout rectangle LineLimit, // Show only whole lines MeasureTrailingSpaces, // MeasureString includes trailing spaces NoClip, // Don't clip text partially outside layout rectangle NoFontFallback, // Don't fall back for characters missing from Font NoWrap, // Don't interpret \n or \t (implied when no rect provided) } Note that a glyph is a symbol that conveys some kind of information For example, the X in the upper-right corner of a window is a glyph that indicates that the window can be closed You can combine and set one or more StringFormatFlags on a StringFormat object by using either the StringFormat constructor or the FormatFlags property For example, the following draws text down-to-up and disables automatic wrapping: StringFormat format = new StringFormat(); formatFormatFlags = StringFormatFlagsDirectionVertical | StringFormatFlagsNoWrap; gDrawString("", font, brush, rect, format); When text doesn't fit into the allotted space, you have a few options If the string is too tall, you have three choices You can clip to the layout rectangle, letting partial lines show, which is the default You can show only complete lines if they fit inside the layout rectangle, which is the behavior you get with StringFormatFlagsLineLimit Finally, you can decide to show complete lines even if they lie outside the layout rectangle, which is what you get with StringFormatFlagsNoClip Combining LineLimit with NoClip is not useful, because the behavior is the same as LineLimit The three options are shown in Figure 53
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Figure 53 The Effect of the LineLimit StringFormatFlags Value
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String Trimming
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If, on the other hand, the string is too long, you can decide what happens by setting the Trimming property of the StringFormat object to one of the StringTrimming enumeration values: enum StringTrimming { None, // No trimming (acts like Word for single lines) Character, // Trim to nearest character (the default) EllipsisCharacter, // Trim to nearest character and show ellipsis Word, // Trim to nearest word EllipsisWord, // Trim to nearest word and show ellipsis EllipsisPath, // Trim file path by putting ellipsis in the middle } Figure 54 shows the results of applying the StringTrimming values when you draw a string
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Figure 54 Examples of the StringTrimming Enumeration
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Tab Stops
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Something else of interest in Figure 54 is the use of tabs to line up the string, instead of forcing the text to be in a monospaced font and lining up the text with spaces Tabs are set using the SetTabStops method of the StringFormat class: StringFormat format = new StringFormat(); SizeF size = gMeasureString( StringTrimmingEllipsisCharacterToString(), thisFont); formatSetTabStops(0, new float[] { sizeWidth + 10 }); This call to SetTabStops sets a single tab stop to be the width of the longest string, plus a pleasing amount of leading When tab stops are specified and when StringFormatFlagsNoWrap is absent from the StringFormat object, then the tab character causes the characters that follow to be drawn starting at the tab stop offset (unless the string has already passed that point) If the StringFormat object has not been given any tab stops, then the tab character will not be interpreted If DrawString is called without any StringFormat object at all, it will build one internally that defaults to four times the size of the font; for example, a 12-point font will have tab stops every 48 points There are several ways to specify tab stops logically For example, imagine that you'd like a tab stop at every 48 units, as DrawString does by default when no StringFormat is provided You might also imagine that you'd like to specify only a certain number of tab stops at specific
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locations Finally, you might imagine that you'd like to have an array of tab stops, but use an offset determined at run time to calculate the actual tab stops All these techniques are supported, but you must use a single SetTabStops method, and that makes things somewhat unintuitive The array of floating point values passed to set the tab stops represents the spaces between successive tab stops The first value in this array is added to the first argument to SetTabStops to get the first tab stop, and each successive value is added to the preceding value to get the next tab stop Finally, when more tabs are found than tab stops, the last value of the array is added repeatedly to get successive tab stops Table 52 shows various arguments passed to SetTabStops and the resultant offsets for each stop You may have noticed the GetTabStops method on the StringFormat class, but unfortunately it hands back only the same tab stop settings handed to SetTabStops in the first place It would have been handy to get back the resultant tab stops so that you could make sure you've set them correctly
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