Terminology and Expectations in Java

Encoder DataMatrix in Java Terminology and Expectations
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We expect that you're a programmer coding for (or about to begin coding for) an SQL DBMS Because of this, we won't be explaining basic SQL syntax or programming techniques Our assumption is that you already know basic SQL syntax, how to program with an SQL Application Programming Interface (API) such as ODBC or JDBC, how to write stored procedures, are familiar with how indexes operate, and so on We also expect that you're familiar with SQL terms as used in introductory SQL texts For example, suppose we illustrate a SELECT statement like this:
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SELECT <select list> WHERE <search conditions> FROM <Table list> GROUP BY <grouping columns> HAVING <conditions> ORDER BY <sorting columns>
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We assume you've already seen terms like "select list" and "search condition" and "grouping column," and we won't repeat their well-known definitions At most, we'll just provide a brief refresher for common SQL syntax and concepts Some further terms are not so well known, but are important for understanding this book We will define such terms the first time we use them If you miss such a definition, you can look it up in the glossary in Appendix B
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Conventions
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We use a particular style in our examples SQL keywords are always in uppercase (eg, SELECT) Table and other major SQL object names are initial capitalized (eg, Table1, Index1); column names are in lowercase (eg, column1) When it is necessary to use more than one line, each line will begin with a clause-leader keyword We deliberately avoid "real-world" names like Employees or cust_id because we believe that meaningful names would distract from the universality of the example Sometimes, though, when illustrating a particular characteristic, we will use a name that hints at the item's nature For example:
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SELECT column1, column2 FROM Table1 WHERE indexed_column = <literal>
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This book doesn't contain many SQL syntax diagrams, but here's a very brief refresher on the common variant of Backus-Naur Form (BNF) notation that we've used:
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<> Angle brackets surround the names of syntactic elements Replace the names with real data
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[] Square brackets surround optional syntax You may either use or omit such syntax
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{} Braces surround mandatory syntax groups You must include one of the options for the group in your SQL statement
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| The vertical bar separates syntactic elements You may use only one of the options in your SQL statement
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Generalities
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"Beware of entrance to a quarrel; but being in, Bear't that th'opposed may beware of thee" William Shakespeare, Hamlet We can start off with some general tips SQL is a procedural language Despite the confusion and outright lies about this point, it is a fact that an SQL statement's clauses are processed in a fixed order And despite the set orientation of SQL, the DBMS must often operate on an SQL result set one row at a time That is, if you're executing this statement:
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UPDATE Table1 SET column1 = 5 WHERE column2 > 400
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SQL's set orientation means the DBMS will determine that, for example, six rows meet the condition that requires them to be updated After that, though, the DBMS must actually change all six of the rows one row at a time The relational model is inherently efficient Dr Codd's rules and the subsequent work on normalization are based on the proven truism that mathematical foundations lead to solid structures (Normalization is the process of designing a database so that its tables follow the rules specified by relational theory) Always assume you will do a query at least 100 times That will make you ask yourself whether you want to use a procedure, a view, a trigger, or some other object and might also make you ask If this is so common, has someone already written something like it And now, let's get started
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2 Simple Searches
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In this chapter, we'll talk about syntax-based optimizing and simple search conditions A syntax is a choice of words and their arrangement in the SQL statement To optimize based on syntax, assume that nonsyntactic factors (eg, indexes, table sizes, storage) are irrelevant or unknown This is the lowest level of optimizing it's usually predictable, and some of it can be done on the client There's no point in attempting to optimize most SQL syntax because only certain SQL statements have options that lend themselves to optimization The particular syntax that offers many optimization possibilities is the SQL search condition Here are three examples of search conditions:
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