Who Does the Testing in Java

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67 Who Does the Testing
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Testing that is done by the implementer or someone else with access to the source code is sometimes called white box testing (The term is a weak analogy to black box testing, where the tester does not know how the component is implemented; "clear box" might be more evocative) It is important to test your own code: don't assume that some testing organization or user will find things for you But it's easy to delude yourself about how carefully you are testing, so try to ignore the code and think of hard cases, not easy ones To quote Don Knuth describing how he creates tests for the TEX formatter, "I get into the meanest, nastiest frame of mind that I can manage, and I write the nastiest [testing] code I can think of; then I turn around and embed that in even nastier constructions that are almost obscene" The reason for testing is to find bugs, not to declare the program working Therefore the tests should be tough, and when they find problems, that is a vindication of your methods, not a cause for alarm Black box testing means that the tester has no knowledge of or access to the innards of the code It finds different kinds of errors, because the tester has different assumptions about where to look Boundary conditions are a good place to begin
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black box testing; high-volume, perverse, and illegal inputs are good follow-ons Of course you should also test the ordinary "middle of the road" or conventional uses of the program to verify basic functionality Real users are the next step New users find new bugs, because they probe the program in unexpected ways It is important to do this kind of testing before the program is released to the world though, sadly, many programs are shipped without enough testing of any kind Beta releases of software are an attempt to have numerous real users test a program before it is finalized, but beta releases should not be used as a substitute for thorough testing As software systems get larger and more complex, and development schedules get shorter, however, the pressure to ship without adequate testing increases It's hard to test interactive programs, especially if they involve mouse input Some testing can be done by scripts (whose properties depend on language, environment, and the like) Interactive programs should be controllable from scripts that simulate user behaviors so they can be tested by programs One technique is to capture the actions of real users and replay them; another is to create a scripting language that describes sequences and timing of events Finally, give some thought to how to test the tests themselves We mentioned in 5 the confusion caused by a faulty test program for a list package A regression suite infected by an error will cause trouble for the rest of time The results of a set of tests will not mean much if the tests themselves are flawed
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68 Testing the Markov Program
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The Markov program of 3 is sufficiently intricate that it needs careful testing It produces nonsense, which is hard to analyze for validity, and we wrote multiple versions in several languages As a final complication, its output is random and different each time How can we apply some of the lessons of this chapter to testing this program The first set of tests consists of a handful of tiny files that check boundary conditions, to make sure the program produces the right output for inputs that contain only a few words For prefixes of length two, we use five files that contain respectively (with one word per line)
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For each file, the output should be identical to the input These checks uncovered several off-by-one errors in initializing the table and starting and stopping the generator
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