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Finally, put yourself in the shoes of the person who receives your report You want to provide the owner with as good a test case as you can manage It's not very helpful if the bug can be demonstrated only with large inputs, or an elaborate environment, or multiple supporting files Strip the test down to a minimal and selfcontained case Include other information that could possibly be relevant, like the version of the program itself and of the compiler operating system and hardware For the buggy version of i s p r i n t mentioned in Section 54 we could provide this as a test program:
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/* t e s t program f o r i s p r i n t bug i n t mai n (voi d)
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i n t c; w h i l e ( i s p r i n t ( c = getchar()) p r i n t f ("%cW c) ; , return 0;
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Any line of printable text will serve as a test case, since the output will contain only half the input:
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1 isprint- test
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The best bug reports are the ones that need only a line or two of input on a plain vanilla system to demonstrate the fault, and that include a fix Send the kind of bug report you'd like to receive yourself
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58 Summary
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With the right attitude debugging can be fun, like solving a puzzle, but whether we enjoy it or not, debugging is an art that we will practice regularly Still, it would be nice if bugs didn't happen, so we try to avoid them by writing code well in the first place Well-written code has fewer bugs to begin with and those that remain are easier to find Once a bug has been seen, the first thing to do is to think hard about the clues it presents How could it have come about Is it something familiar Was something just changed in the program Is there something special about the input data that provoked it A few well-chosen test cases and a few print statements in the code may be enough If there aren't good clues, hard thinking is still the best first step, to be followed by systematic attempts to narrow down the location of the problem One step is cutting down the input data to make a small input that fails; another is cutting out code to eliminate regions that can't be related It's possible to insert checking code that gets
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SECTION 58
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SUMMARY
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turned on only after the program has executed some number of steps, again to try to localize the problem A11 of these are instances of a general strategy, divide and conquer, which is as effective in debugging as it is in politics and war Use other aids as well Explaining your code to someone else (even a teddy bear) is wonderfully effective Use a debugger to get a stack trace Use some of the commercial tools that check for memory leaks, array bounds violations, suspect code, and the like Step through your program when it has become clear that you have the wrong mental picture of how the code works Know yourself, and the kinds of errors you make Once you have found and fixed a bug, make sure that you eliminate other bugs that might be similar Think about what happened so you can avoid making that kind of mistake again
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Supplementary Reading
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Steve Maguire's Writing Solid Code (Microsoft Press, 1993) and Steve McConnell's Code Complete (Microsoft Press, 1993) both have much good advice on debugging
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