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This mechanism doesn't work if the function's legal return values take up all possible values For example a mathematical function like log can return any floatingpoint number In IEEE floating point, a special value called NN ("not a number") a indicates an error and can be returned as an error signal Some languages, such as Per1 and Tcl, provide a low-cost way to group two or more values into a tuple In such languages, a function value and any error state can be easily returned together The C++ STL provides a pai r data type that can also be used in this way It is desirable to distinguish various exceptional values like end of file and error states if possible, rather than lumping them together into a single value If the values can't readily be separated, another option is to return a single "exception" value and provide another function that returns more detail about the last error This is the approach used in Unix and in the C standard library, where many system calls and library functions return -1 but also set a global variable called errno that encodes the specific error; s t r e r r o r returns a string associated with the error number On our system, this program: #i ncl ude #include #include #include
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< s t d io h> < s t r i ng h> <errno h> <math h>
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errno main: t e s t errno double f;
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errno = 0 ; /* c l e a r e r r o r s t a t e a/ f = log(-l23); printf("%f %d %s\nM,f , errno, s t r e r r o r ( e r r n 0 ) ) ; return 0 ;
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prints nanOxlOOOOOOO 33 Domain e r r o r As shown, errno must be cleared first; then if an error occurs, errno will be set to a non-zero value
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Use exceptions only for exceptional situations Some languages provide exceptions to catch unusual situations and recover from them; they provide an alternate flow of control when something bad happens Exceptions should not be used for handling expected return values Reading from a file will eventually produce an end of file; this should be handled with a return value, not by an exception In Java, one writes
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String fname = "someFi 1eName" ; try C FileInputStream i n = new FileInputStream(fname) ; i n t c; while ((c = i n read()) != -1) Systemoutprint((char) c); inclose(); } catch (Fi 1 eNotFoundException e) { Systemerrprintln(fname + " not found"); ) catch (IOException e) { Systemerr println("I0Exception: " + e); e p r i ntStackTrace0 ;
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The loop reads characters until end of file, an expected event that is signaled by a return value of -1 from read If the file can't be opened, that raises an exception, however, rather than setting the input stream to nu11 as would be done in C or C++ Finally, if some other 110 error happens in the t r y block, it is also exceptional, and it is caught by the IOExcepti on clause Exceptions are often overused Because they distort the flow of control, they can lead to convoluted constructions that are prone to bugs It is hardly exceptional to fail to open a file; generating an exception in this case strikes us as over-engineering Exceptions are best reserved for truly unexpected events, such as file systems filling up or floating-point errors For C programs, the pair of functions setjmp and longjmp provide a much lower-level service upon which an exception mechanism can be built, but they are sufficiently arcane that we won't go into them here What about recovery of resources when an error occurs Should a library attempt a recovery when something goes wrong Not usually, but it might do a service by making sure that it leaves information in as clean and harmless a state as possible Certainly unused storage should be reclaimed If variables might be still accessible, they should be set to sensible values A common source of bugs is trying to use a pointer that points to freed storage If error-handling code sets pointers to zero after freeing what they point to, this won't go undetected The reset function in the second version of the CSV library was an attempt to address these issues In general, aim to keep the library usable after an error has occurred
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