ALGORITHMS AND DATA STRUCTURES in Java

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apply (nvl i t , p r i ntnv, "%s: %x\nM); s
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To count the elements, we define a function whose argument is a pointer to an integer to be incremented:
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/* inccounter: increment counter t a r g */ v o i d inccounter (Nameval t p, v o i d narg)
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i n t *ip;
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/* p i s unused */ i p = ( i n t *) arg; (*i p)++;
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and call it like this:
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i n t n; n = 0; apply (nvl i t , i s nccounter, &n) ; p r i n t f ("%d elements i n n v li s t \ n W, n) ;
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Not every list operation is best done this way For instance, to destroy a list we must use more care:
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/* f r e e a l l : f r e e a l l elements o f l i s t p v o i d f reeal 1 (Nameval *l istp)
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Nameval *next ;
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f o r ( ; l i s t p != NULL; l i s t p = next) { next = listp->next; /n assumes name i s f r e e d elsewhere f r e e (1 i stp) ;
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Memory cannot be used after it has been freed, so we must save 1i s t p - > n e x t in a local variable, called next, before freeing the element pointed to by 1istp If the loop read, like the others,
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f o r ( ; l i s t p != NULL; l i s t p = l i s t p - > n e x t ) f ree(1 i stp) ;
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the value of 1 stp->next could be overwritten by f r e e and the code would fail i i Notice that f reeal 1 does not free 1 stp->name It assumes that the name field of each Nameval will be freed somewhere else, or was never allocated Making sure items are allocated and freed consistently requires agreement between newi tem and f reeal 1;there is a tradeoff between guaranteeing that memory gets freed and making sure things aren't freed that shouldn't be Bugs are frequent when this is done wrong
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In other languages, including Java, garbage collection solves this problem for you We will return to the topic of resource management in 4 Deleting a single element from a list is more work than adding one:
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/* delitem: d e l e t e f i r s t "name" from l i s t p t/ Nameval * d e l i tem(Nameva1 n l is t p , char *name)
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Nameval t p , t p r e v ; prev = NULL; f o r (p = l i s t p ; p != NULL; p = p->next) i f (strcmp(name, p->name) == 0) i f (prev == NULL) l i s t p = p->next; else prev->next = p->next; free (PI ; return l i s t p ;
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prev = p; e p r i n t f ("del i tem: %s not i n 1 is t " , name) ; r e t u r n NULL; /* c a n ' t g e t here t/
As in f r e e a l 1, del i tem does not free the name field The function e p r i n t f displays an error message and exits the program, which is clumsy at best Recovering gracefully from errors can be difficult and requires a longer discussion that we defer to 4, where we will also show the implementation of e p r i n t f These basic list structures and operations account for the vast majority of applications that you are likely to write in ordinary programs But there are many alternatives Some libraries, including the C++ Standard Template Library, support doublylinked lists, in which each element has two pointers one to its successor and one to its predecessor Doubly-linked lists require more overhead, but finding the last element and deleting the current element are 0( ) operations Some allocate the list pointers 1 separately from the data they link together; these are a little harder to use but permit items to appear on more than one list at the same time Besides being suitable for situations where there are insertions and deletions in the middle, lists are good for managing unordered data of fluctuating size, especially when access tends to be last-in-first-out (LIFO), as in a stack They make more effective use of memory than arrays do when there are multiple stacks that grow and shrink independently They also behave well when the information is ordered intrinsically as a chain of unknown a priori size, such as the successive words of a document If you must combine frequent update with random access, however, it would be wiser to use a less insistently linear data structure, such as a tree or hash table