Exercise 8-1 Investigate how your compiler handles code contained within a conditional block like in Java

Making DataMatrix in Java Exercise 8-1 Investigate how your compiler handles code contained within a conditional block like
Exercise 8-1 Investigate how your compiler handles code contained within a conditional block like
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const i n t DEBUG
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Under what circumstances does it check syntax When does it generate code If you have access to more than one compiler, how do the results compare
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84 Isolation
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Although we would like to have a single source that compiles without change on all systems, that may be unrealistic But it is a mistake to have non-portable code scattered throughout a program: that is one of the problems that conditional compilation creates
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Localize system dependencies in separate files When different code is needed for different systems, the differences should be localized in separate files, one file for each system For example, the text editor Sam runs on Unix, Windows, and several other operating systems The system interfaces for these environments vary widely, but most of the code for Sam is identical everywhere A single file captures the system variations for a particular environment; uni x c provides the interface code for Unix systems, and windows c for the Windows environment These files implement a portable interface to the operating system and hide the differences Sam is, in effect, written to its own virtual operating system, which is ported to various real systems by writing a couple of hundred lines of C to implement half a dozen small but nonportable operations using locally available system calls The graphics environments of these operating systems are almost unrelated Sam copes by having a portable library for its graphics Although it's a lot more work to build such a library than to hack the code to adapt to a given system- code to the interface to the X Window system, for example, is about half as big as the rest of Sam put together-the cumulative effort is less in the long run And as a side benefit, the graphics library is itself valuable, and has been used separately to make a number of other programs portable, too Sam is an old program; today, portable graphics environments such as OpenGL Tcmk and Java are available for a variety of platforms Writing your code with these rather than a proprietary graphics library will give your program wider utility Hide system dependencies behind interfaces Abstraction is a powerful technique for creating boundaries between portable and non-portable parts of a program The 110 libraries that accompany most programming languages provide a good example: they present an abstraction of secondary storage in terms of files to be opened and closed,
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read and written, without any reference to their physical location or structure Programs that adhere to the interface will run on any system that implements it The implementation of Sam provides another example of abstraction An interface is defined for the file system and graphics operations and the program uses only features of the interface The interface itself uses whatever facilities are available in the underlying system That might require significantly different implementations on different systems, but the program that uses the interface is independent of that and should require no changes as it is moved The Java approach to portability is a good example of how far this can be carried A Java program is translated into operations in a "virtual machine" that is, a simulated computer that can be implemented to run on any real machine Java libraries provide uniform access to features of the underlying system, including graphics, user interface, networking, and the like; the libraries map into whatever the local system provides In theory, it should be possible to run the same Java program (even after translation) everywhere without change
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85 Data Exchange
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Textual data moves readily from one system to another and is the simplest portable way to exchange arbitrary information between systems
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Use text for data exchange Text is easy to manipulate with other tools and to process in unexpected ways For example, if the output of one program isn't quite right as input for another, an Awk or Per1 script can be used to adjust it; grep can be used to select or discard lines; your favorite editor can be used to make more complicated changes Text files are also much easier to document and may not even need much documentation, since people can read them A comment in a text file can indicate what version of software is needed to process the data; the first line of a Postscript file, for instance, identifies the encoding:
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By contrast, binary files need specialized tools and rarely can be used together even on the same machine A variety of widely-used programs convert arbitrary binary data into text so it can be shipped with less chance of corruption; these include b i nhex for Macintosh systems, uuencode and uudecode for Unix, and various tools that use MIME encoding for transferring binary data in mail messages In 9, we show a family of pack and unpack routines to encode binary data portably for transmission The sheer variety of such tools speaks to the problems of binary formats There is one continuing irritation with exchanging text: PC systems use a carriage return ' \ r ' and a newline or line-feed '\n' to terminate each line, while Unix systems use only newline The carriage return is an artifact of an ancient device called a
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