Exiting and Terminating a Process in .NET

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Exiting and Terminating a Process
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After a process is complete, the process, or more accurately, a thread running in the process, can call ExitProcess with an exit code VOID ExitProcess (UINT uExitCode)
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This function does not return Rather, the calling process and all its threads terminate Termination handlers are ignored, but there will be detach calls to DllMain (see 5) The exit code is associated with the process A return from the main program, with a return value, will have the same effect as calling ExitProcess with the return value as the exit code Another process can use GetExitCodeProcess to determine the exit code BOOL GetExitCodeProcess ( HANDLE hProcess, LPDWORD lpExitCode)
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The process identified by hProcess must have PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION access (see OpenProcess, discussed earlier) lpExitCode points to the DWORD that receives the value One possible value is STILL_ACTIVE, meaning that the process has not terminated Finally, one process can terminate another process if the handle has PROCESS_TERMINATE access The terminating function also specifies the exit code BOOL TerminateProcess ( HANDLE hProcess, UINT uExitCode)
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Caution: Before exiting from a process, be certain to free all resources that might be shared with other processes In particular, the synchronization resources of 8 (mutexes, semaphores, and events) must be handled carefully SEH ( 4) can be helpful in this regard, and the ExitProcess call can be in the handler However, __finally and __except handlers are not executed when ExitProcess is called, so it is not a good idea to exit from inside a program TerminateProcess is especially risky because the terminated process will not have an opportunity to execute its SEH or DLL DllMain functions Console control handlers ( 4 and later in this chapter) are a limited alternative, allowing one process to send a signal to another process, which can then shut itself down cleanly Program 6-3 shows a technique whereby processes cooperate One process sends a shutdown request to a second process, which proceeds to perform an orderly shutdown
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UNIX processes have a process ID, or pid, comparable to the Windows process ID getpid is similar to GetCurrentProcessId, but there are no Windows equivalents to getppid and getgpid because Windows has no process parents or groups Conversely, UNIX does not have process handles, so it has no functions comparable to GetCurrentProcess or OpenProcess UNIX allows open file descriptors to be used after an exec if the file descriptor does not have the close-on-exec flag set This applies only to file descriptors, which are then comparable to inheritable file handles UNIX exit, actually in the C library, is similar to ExitProcess; to terminate another process, signal it with SIGKILL
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Waiting for a Process to Terminate
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The simplest, and most limited, method of synchronizing with another process is to wait for that process to complete The general-purpose Windows wait functions introduced here have several interesting features
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The functions can wait for many different types of objects; process handles are just the first use of the wait functions The functions can wait for a single process, the first of several specified processes, or all processes in a group to complete There is an optional time-out period
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The two general-purpose wait functions wait for synchronization objects to become signaled The system sets a process handle, for example, to the signaled state when the process terminates or is terminated The wait functions, which will get lots of future use, are as follows: DWORD WaitForSingleObject ( HANDLE hObject, DWORD dwMilliseconds)
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DWORD WaitForMultipleObjects ( DWORD nCount, CONST HANDLE *lpHandles, BOOL fWaitAll, DWORD dwMilliseconds)
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Return: The cause of the wait completion, or 0XFFFFFFFF for an error (use GetLastError for more information)
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Specify either a single process handle (hObject) or an array of distinct object handles in the array referenced by lpHandles nCount, the size of the array, should not exceed MAXIMUM_WAIT_OBJECTS (defined as 64 in WINNTH) dwMilliseconds is the time-out period in milliseconds A value of 0 means that the function returns immediately after testing the state of the specified objects, thus allowing a program to poll for process termination Use INFINITE for no time-out to wait until a process terminates fWaitAll, a parameter of the second function, specifies (if trUE) that it is necessary to wait for all processes, rather than only one, to terminate The possible successful return values for this function are as follows
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WAIT_OBJECT_0 means that the handle is signaled in the case of WaitForSingleObject or all nCount objects are simultaneously signaled in the special case of WaitForMultipleObjects with fWaitAll set to trUE WAIT_OBJECT_0+n, where 0 n < nCount Subtract WAIT_OBJECT_0 from the return value to determine which process terminated when waiting for any of a group of processes to terminate If several handles are signaled, the returned value is the smallest possible value
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WAIT_ABANDONED_0 is a possible base value when using mutex handles; see 8 WAIT_TIMEOUT indicates that the time-out period elapsed before the wait could be satisfied by signaled handle(s) WAIT_FAILED indicates that the call failed; for example, the handle may not have SYNCHRONIZE access WAIT_ABANDONED_0 is not possible with processes This value is discussed in 8 along with mutex handles
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