Kernel and Private Object Security in .NET framework

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Many objects, such as processes, threads, and mutexes, are kernel objects To get and set kernel security descriptors, use GetKernelObjectSecurity and SetKernelObjectSecurity, which are similar to the file security functions described in this chapter However, you need to know the access rights appropriate to an object; the next subsection shows how to find the rights It is also possible to associate security descriptors with private, programmer-generated objects, such as Windows Sockets or a proprietary database The appropriate functions are GetPrivateObjectSecurity and SetPrivateObjectSecurity The programmer must take responsibility for enforcing access and must exchange security descriptors with CreatePrivateObjectSecurity and DestroyPrivateObjectSecurity
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ACE Mask Values
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The "user, group, everyone" model that InitUnixSA implements will be adequate in many cases, although different models can be implemented using the same basic techniques It is necessary, however, to determine the actual ACE mask values appropriate for a particular kernel object The values are not always well documented, but they can be found in several ways
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Read the documentation for the open call for the object in question The access flags are the same as the flags used in the ACE mask For example, OpenMutex uses MUTEX_ALL_ACCESS and SYNCHRONIZE (the second flag is required for any object that can be used with WaitForSingleObject or WaitForMultipleObjects) Other objects, such as processes, have many additional access flags The "create" documentation may also supply useful information Inspect the header files WINNTH and WINBASEH for flags that apply to the object
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Example: Securing a Process and Its Threads
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The OpenProcess documentation shows a fine-grained collection of access rights, which is appropriate considering the various functions that can be performed on a process handle For example, PROCESS_TERMINATE access is required on a process handle in order for a process (actually, a thread within that process) to terminate the process that the handle represents PROCESS_QUERY_INFORMATION access is required in order to perform GetExitCodeProcess or GetPriorityClass on a process handle PROCESS_ALL_ACCESS permits all access, and SYNCHRONIZE access is required to perform a wait function In order to illustrate these concepts, JobShellSecurec upgrades 6's JobShell job management program so that only the owner (or administrator) can access the managed processes The program is on the book's Web site
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Overview of Additional Security Features
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There is much more to Windows security, but this chapter is an introduction, showing how to secure Windows objects using the security API The following sections give a brief overview of additional security subjects that some readers will want to explore
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Removing ACEs
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The DeleteAce function deletes an ACE specified by an index, in a manner similar to that used with GetAce
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Absolute and Self-Relative Security Descriptors
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Program 15-5, which changed ACLs, had the benefit of simply replacing one security descriptor (SD) with another To change an existing SD, however, some care is required because of the distinction between absolute and self-relative SDs The internal details of these data structures are not important for our purposes, but it is necessary to understand why there are two distinct SD types and how to convert between them
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During construction, an SD is absolute, with pointers to various structures in memory In fact, InitializeSecurityDescriptor creates an absolute SD When the SD is associated with a permanent object, such as the file, the OS consolidates the SD into a compact, self-relative structure However, changing an SD (changing an ACL, for example) causes difficulties in managing space within the absolute SD structure It is possible to convert between the two forms using Windows functions for that purpose Use MakeAbsoluteSD to convert a self-relative SD, such as the one returned by GetFileSecurity Modify the SD in self-relative form and then use MakeSelfRelativeSD to convert it back MakeAbsoluteSD is one of the more formidable Windows functions, having eleven parameters: two for each of the four SD components, one each for the input and output SDs, and one for the length of the resulting absolute SD
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