Security Descriptor Initialization in VS .NET

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Security Descriptor Initialization
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The first step is to initialize the security descriptor using the InitializeSecurityDescriptor function The pSecurityDescriptor parameter should be set to the address of a valid SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR structure These structures are opaque and are managed with specific functions dwRevision is set to the constant SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_REVISION BOOL InitializeSecurityDescriptor ( PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR pSecurityDescriptor, DWORD dwRevision)
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Security Descriptor Control Flags
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Flags within the Control structure of the security descriptor, the SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_CONTROL flags, control the meaning assigned to the security descriptor Several of these flags are set or reset by the upcoming functions and will be mentioned as needed GetSecurityDescriptorControl and SetSecurityDescriptorControl (available with NT5) access these flags, but the flags will not be used directly in the examples
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Security Identifiers
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Windows uses SIDs to identify users and groups The program can look up a SID from the account name, which can be a user, group, domain, and so on The account can be on a remote system The first step is to determine the SID from an account name BOOL LookupAccountName ( LPCTSTR lpSystemName, LPCTSTR lpAccountName, PSID Sid, LPDWORD cbSid, LPTSTR ReferencedDomainName, LPDWORD cbReferencedDomainName, PSID_NAME_USE peUse)
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Parameters
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lpSystemName and lpAccountName point to the system and account names Frequently, lpSystemName is NULL to indicate the local system Sid is the returned information, which is of size *cbSid The function will fail, returning the required size, if the buffer is not large enough ReferencedDomainName is a string of length *cbReferencedDomainName characters The length parameter should be initialized to the buffer size (the usual techniques are used to process failures) The return value shows the domain where the name is found The account name Administrators will return BUILTIN, whereas a user account name will return that same user name peUse points to a SID_NAME_USE (enumerated type) variable and can be tested for values such as SidTypeWellKnownGroup, SidTypeUser, SidTypeGroup, and so on
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Getting the Account and User Names
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Given a SID, you reverse the process and obtain the account name using LookupAccountSid Specify the SID and get the name in return The account name can be any name available to the process Some names, such as Everyone, are well known BOOL LookupAccountSid ( LPCTSTR lpSystemName, PSID Sid, LPTSTR lpAccountName, LPDWORD cbName, LPTSTR ReferencedDomainName, LPDWORD cbReferencedDomainName, PSID_NAME_USE peUse)
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Obtain the process's user account name (the logged-in user) with the GetUserName function
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BOOL GetUserName ( LPTSTR lpBuffer, LPDWORD nSize)
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The user name and length are returned in the conventional manner It is possible to create and manage SIDs using functions such as InitializeSid and AllocateAndInitializeSid The examples confine themselves, however, to SIDs obtained from account names Once SIDs are known, they can be entered into an initialized security descriptor BOOL SetSecurityDescriptorOwner ( PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR pSecurityDescriptor, PSID pOwner, BOOL bOwnerDefaulted)
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BOOL SetSecurityDescriptorGroup ( PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR pSecurityDescriptor, PSID pGroup, BOOL bGroupDefaulted)
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pSecurityDescriptor points to the appropriate security descriptor, and pOwner (or pGroup) is the address of the owner's (group's) SID bOwnerDefaulted (or bGroupDefaulted) indicates, if trUE, that a default mechanism is used to derive the owner (or primary group) information The SE_OWNER_DEFAULTED and SE_GROUP_DEFAULTED flags within the SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_CONTROL structure are set according to these two parameters The similar functions GetSecurityDescriptorOwner and GetSecurityDescriptorGroup return the SID (either owner or group) from a security descriptor
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Managing ACLs
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This section shows how to manage ACLs, how to associate an ACL with a security descriptor, and how to add ACEs Figure 15-1 shows the relationships between these objects and functions The first step is to initialize an ACL structure The ACL should not be accessed directly, so its internal structure is not relevant The program must, however, provide a buffer to serve as the ACL; the functions manage the contents BOOL InitializeAcl ( PACL pAcl, DWORD cbAcl, DWORD dwAclRevision)
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pAcl is the address of a programmer-supplied buffer of cbAcl bytes Subsequent discussion and Program 15-4 will show how to determine the ACL size, but 1KB is more than adequate for most purposes dwAclRevision should be ACL_REVISION Next, add the ACEs in the order desired with the AddAccessAllowedAce and AddAccessDeniedAce functions BOOL AddAccessAllowedAce ( PACL pAcl, DWORD dwAclRevision DWORD dwAccessMask, PSID pSid) BOOL AddAccessDeniedAce ( PACL pAcl, DWORD dwAclRevision, DWORD dwAccessMask, PSID pSid)
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pAcl points to the same ACL structure initialized with InitializeAcl, and dwAclRevision is ACL_REVISION again pSid points to a SID, such as one that would be obtained from LookupAccountName The access mask (dwAccessMask) determines the rights to be granted or denied to the user or group specified by the SID The predefined mask values will vary by the object type The final step is to associate an ACL with the security descriptor In the case of the discretionary ACL, use the SetSecurityDescriptorDacl function BOOL SetSecurityDescriptorDacl ( PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR pSecurityDescriptor, BOOL bDaclPresent, PACL pAcl, BOOL fDaclDefaulted)
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bDaclPresent, if TRUE, indicates that there is an ACL in the pAcl structure If FALSE, pAcl and fDaclDefaulted, the next two parameters, are ignored The SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_CONTROL's SE_DACL_PRESENT flag is also set to this parameter's value The final flag, fDaclDefaulted, if FALSE, indicates an ACL generated by the programmer Otherwise, it was obtained by a default mechanism, such as inheritance; bDaclPresent should be TRUE, however, to indicate that there is an ACL The SE_DACL_DEFAULTED flag in the SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR_CONTROL is set to this parameter value Other functions delete ACEs and read ACEs from an ACL; we will discuss them later in this chapter It is now time for an example
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