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12 shows how to use standard, rather than Windows proprietary, interprocess and networking communication The same client/server system, with some server enhancements, will be rewritten to use the standard methods
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111 Carry out experiments to determine the accuracy of the performance advantages cited for transactNamedPipe You will need to make some changes to the server code as given Also compare the results with the current implementation 112 Use the JobShell program from 6 to start the server and several clients, where each client is created using the "detached" option Eventually, shut down the server by sending a console control event through the kill command Can you suggest any improvements to the serverNP shutdown logic so that a connected server thread can test the shutdown flag while blocked waiting for a client request Hint: Create a read thread similar to the connection thread 113 Enhance the server so that the name of its named pipe is an argument on the command line Bring up multiple server processes with different pipe names using the job management programs in 6 Verify that multiple clients simultaneously access this multiprocess server system 114 Run the client and server on different systems to confirm correct network operation Modify SrvrBcst (Program 11-4) so that it includes the server machine name in the named pipe Also, modify the mailslot name used in Program 11-4 115 Modify the server so that you measure the server's utilization (In other words, what percentage of elapsed time is spent in the server ) Maintain performance information and report this information to the client on request The RequestCommand field could be used 116 Enhance the server location programs so that the client will find the server with the lowest utilization rate 117 Enhance the server so that the request includes a working directory The server should set its working directory, carry out the command, and then restore the working directory to the old value Caution: The server thread should not set the process working directory; instead, each thread should maintain a string representing its working directory and concatenate that string to the start of relative pathnames 118 serverNP is designed to run indefinitely as a server, allowing clients to connect, obtain services, and disconnect When a client disconnects, it is important for the server to free all associated resources, such as memory, file handles, and thread handles Any remaining resource leaks will ultimately exhaust system resources, causing the server to fail, and before failure there will probably be significant performance degradation Carefully examine serverNP to ensure that there are no resource leaks, and, if you find any, fix them (Also, please inform the author using the e-mail address in the preface) Note: Resource leaks are a common and serious defect in many production systems No "industry-strength" quality assurance effort is complete if it has not addressed this issue 119 Extended exercise: Synchronization objects can be used to synchronize threads in different processes on the same machine, but they cannot synchronize threads running in processes on different machines Use named pipes and mailslots to create emulated mutexes, events, and semaphores to overcome this limitation
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Named pipes and mailslots are suitable for interprocess communication between processes on the same system or processes on machines connected by a local or wide area network The client/server system developed in 11, starting with Program 11-2, demonstrated these capabilities Named pipes and mailslots (more simply referred to here as "named pipes," unless the distinction is important) have the distinct drawback, however, of not being an industry standard Therefore, programs such as those in 11 will not port easily to non-Windows systems, nor will they interoperate with non-Windows systems This is the case even though named pipes are protocol-independent and can run over industry-standard protocols such as TCP/IP Windows provides interoperability by supporting Windows Sockets, which are nearly the same as, and interoperable with, Berkeley Sockets, a de facto industry standard This chapter shows how to use the Windows Sockets (or "Winsock") API by modifying 11's client/server system The resulting system can operate over TCP/IP-based wide area networks, and the server, for instance, can accept requests from UNIX and other non-Windows clients Readers who are familiar with Berkeley Sockets may want to proceed directly to the programming examples, where not only are sockets used but new server features are added and additional threadsafe library techniques are demonstrated Winsock, by enabling standards-based interoperability, allows programmers to exploit higher-level protocols and applications, such as ftp, http, RPCs, and COM, all of which provide different, and higherlevel, models for standard, interoperable, networked interprocess communication In this chapter, the client/server system is used as a vehicle for demonstrating Winsock, and, in the course of modifying the server, interesting new features are added In particular, DLL entry points ( 5) and in-process DLL servers are used for the first time (These new features could have been incorporated in the initial 11 version, but doing so would have distracted from the development and understanding of the basic system architecture) Finally, additional examples show how to create reentrant thread-safe libraries Winsock, because of conformance to industry standards, has naming conventions and programming characteristics somewhat different from the Windows functions described so far The Winsock API is not strictly a part of Win32/64 Winsock also provides additional functions that are not part of the standard; these functions are used only as absolutely required Among other advantages, programs will be more portable to other systems
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