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The ORB_init function expects three arguments argc is the number of entries in argv argv is the command-line argument vector passed to main orb_identifier is a vendor-specific string (defaulted to the empty string) A typical client main looks something like this:
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int main(int argc, char * argv[]) { CORBA::ORB_ptr orb; try { orb = CORBA::ORB_init(argc, argv); } catch () { cerr << "Cannot initialize ORB" << endl; exit(1); } // Use ORB CORBA::release(orb); } return 0;
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ORB_init receives a reference to argc and an argv vector from the client and examines argv for ORB-specific options beginning with -ORB ORB_init removes any ORB-specific options from argv so when the call returns, the argument vector contains only the remaining options that concern the application rather than the ORB The orb_identifier argument to ORB_init identifies the particular ORB to initialize This behavior is useful if an application needs to initialize more than one ORB run-time environment The application can also use orb_identifier to select a particular set of configuration values or quality-of-service parameters CORBA does not precisely specify the effects of the orb_identifier argument, so you must consult your ORB's documentation for details The default orb_identifier is the empty string, which instructs the implementation to use whatever default behavior has been configured If orb_identifier is the empty string, ORB_init scans the argument vector for an option of the form -ORBid arg If this option is present, the value of arg determines the behavior If orb_identifier is a non-empty string and if -ORBid is also used, orb_identifier overrides the value of the -ORBid option
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ORB_init returns a reference to the ORB pseudo-object Clients and servers always obtain their first object reference this way; the ORB pseudo-object contains operations that can be called to obtain further references Note that you must eventually release the returned reference (pseudo-references must be released just as normal references are) Releasing the ORB reference instructs the ORB run time to clean up This means that you must release the ORB reference last because other ORB-related calls may no longer work after the run time has cleaned up Note that you cannot use the ORB before the code has entered main because you must pass argc and argv parameters to ORB_init In particular, you cannot make CORBA-related calls from constructors for global or static C++ objects Do not try to cheat by passing dummy argc and argv parameters to ORB_init before the code has entered main; the result may be a core dump For example, ORB_init could fail catastrophically because it may itself depend on side effects from global constructors in the ORB run-time libraries In general, you should ban global objects from your code As shown in [11], global objects inevitably cause more problems than they solve However, the ORB pseudoobject typically must be accessible from anywhere in your source code A good way to make the object globally accessible is to use the Singleton pattern [4]
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79 Initial References
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After the client has initialized the ORB, it can obtain further references by invoking operations on the ORB interface:
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module CORBA { // PIDL // interface ORB { string object_to_string(in Object obj); Object string_to_object(in string str); // }; // };
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The ORB interface contains two operations that can be used to create and obtain initial references object_to_string This operation converts a reference into a printable string for example, for storing a reference on disk string_to_object This operation converts a stringified reference back into an object reference The C++ mapping for these operations is as follows:
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namespace CORBA { // class ORB { public: char * Object_ptr }; // }
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object_to_string(Object_ptr p); string_to_object(const char * s);
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A client uses these operations by invoking them on the ORB pseudo-object 791 Conversion from String to Reference The following example shows how a client obtains a reference to our climate controller object from the command line
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// Initialize ORB CORBA::ORB_ptr orb = CORBA::ORB_init(argc, argv); // Assume argv[1] is a stringified reference to a controller CORBA::Object_ptr obj; try { obj = orb->string_to_object(argv[1]); } catch () { cerr << "Bad format for stringified reference" << endl; exit(1); } // Check that reference is non-nil if (CORBA::is_nil(obj)) { cerr << "Passed reference is nil" << endl; exit(1); } // Narrow to controller CCS::Controller_ptr ctrl; try { ctrl = CCS::Controller::_narrow(obj); } catch () { cerr << "Narrow failed" << endl; exit(1); } // Don't need base interface anymore CORBA::release(obj); // Was the reference of the correct type if (CORBA::is_nil(ctrl)) { cerr << "Argument is not a controller reference" << endl; exit(1); }
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