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The client can choose to make requests either using static stubs compiled into C++ from the object's interface definition (see Section 242) or using the Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII) (see Section 244) Either way, the client directs the request into the ORB core linked into its process The client ORB core transmits the request to the ORB core linked with the server application The server ORB core dispatches the request to the object adapter (see Section 245) that created the target object The object adapter further dispatches the request to the servant that is implementing the target object Like the client, the server can choose between static and dynamic dispatching mechanisms for its servants It can rely on static skeletons compiled into C++ from the object's interface definition, or its servants can use the Dynamic Skeleton Interface (DSI) After the servant carries out the request, it returns its response to the client application CORBA supports several styles of requests When a client invokes a synchronous request, it blocks while it waits for the response These requests are identical to remote procedure calls A client that invokes a deferred synchronous request sends the request, continues processing, and then later polls for the response Currently, this style of request can be invoked only using the DII CORBA also provides a oneway request, which is a best-effort request that may not actually be delivered to the target object and is not allowed to have responses ORBs are allowed to silently drop oneway requests if network congestion or other resource shortages would cause the client to block while the request was delivered A future version of CORBA (very likely version 30) will also support asynchronous requests that can be used to allow occasionally connected clients and servers to communicate with one another It will also add support for making deferred synchronous calls using static stubs as well as the DII The next few sections describe the CORBA components required to make requests and to get responses 242 OMG Interface Definition Language To invoke operations on a distributed object, a client must know the interface offered by the object An object's interface is composed of the operations it supports and the types of data that can be passed to and from those operations Clients also require knowledge of the purpose and semantics of the operations they want to invoke
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In CORBA, object interfaces are defined in the OMG Interface Definition Language (IDL) Unlike C++ or Java, IDL is not a programming language, so objects and applications cannot be implemented in IDL The sole purpose of the IDL is to allow object interfaces to be defined in a manner that is independent of any particular programming language This arrangement allows applications implemented in different programming languages to interoperate The language independence of IDL is critical to the CORBA goal of supporting heterogeneous systems and the integration of separately developed applications OMG IDL supports built-in simple types, such as signed and unsigned integer types, characters, Boolean, and strings, as well as constructed types such as enumerated types, structures, discriminated unions, sequences (one-dimensional vectors), and exceptions These types are used to define the parameter types and return types for operations, which in turn are defined within interfaces IDL also provides a module construct used for name scoping purposes The following example shows a simple IDL definition:
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interface Employee { long number(); };
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This example defines an interface named Employee that contains an operation named number The number operation takes no arguments and returns a long A CORBA object supporting the Employee interface is expected to implement the number operation to return the number of the employee represented by that object Object references are denoted in IDL by using the name of an interface as a type For example:
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interface EmployeeRegistry { Employee lookup(in long emp_number); };
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The lookup operation of the EmployeeRegistry interface takes an employee number as an input argument and returns an object reference of type Employee that refers to the employee object identified by the emp_number argument An application could use this operation to retrieve an Employee object and then use the returned object reference value to invoke Employee operations Arguments to IDL operations must have their directions declared so that the ORB knows whether their values should be sent from client to target object, vice versa, or both In the definition of the lookup operation, the keyword in signifies that the employee number argument is passed from the client to the target object Arguments can also be declared out to indicate that, like return values, they are passed from the target object back to the
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