Mapping for Basic Types in Software

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66 Mapping for Basic Types
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IDL basic types are mapped as shown in Table 61 Except for string, each IDL type is mapped to a type definition in the CORBA namespace The type definitions allow the mapping to maintain the size guarantees provided by IDL To ensure that your code remains portable, always use the names defined in the CORBA namespace for IDL types (for example, use CORBA::Long instead of long to declare a variable) This will also help the transition of your code to 64-bit architectures (which may define CORBA::Long as int) Note that IDL string is mapped directly to char * instead of a type definition The reason is that when the OMG first produced the C++ mapping, it was felt that binary layout of data in memory had to be the same for both the C and the C++ mappings[1] This precludes mapping strings to something more convenient, such as a string class
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[1] In hindsight, imposing this restriction was probably a mistake because it forces the C++ mapping to be less type-safe and convenient than it could have been otherwise
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661 64-bit Integer and long double Types The specification assumes that the underlying C++ implementation provides native support for (unsigned) long long and long double If such support is not available, the mapping for these types is not specified For that reason, you should avoid 64-bit integers and long double unless you are sure that they are supported as native C++ types on the platforms relevant to you
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Table 61 Mapping for basic types IDL short long long long CORBA::Short CORBA::Long CORBA::LongLong C++
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unsigned short unsigned long unsigned long long float double long double char wchar string wstring boolean octet any
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CORBA::UShort CORBA::ULong CORBA::ULongLong CORBA::Float CORBA::Double CORBA::LongDouble CORBA::Char CORBA::WChar char * CORBA::WChar * CORBA::Boolean CORBA::Octet CORBA::Any
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662 Overloading on Basic Types All the basic types are mapped so that they are distinguishable for the purposes of C++ overloading; the exceptions are char, boolean, octet, and wchar This is because all three of the types char, boolean, and octet may map to the same C++ character type, and wchar may map to one of the C++ integer types or wchar_t For example:
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void void void void void void foo(CORBA::Short param) foo(CORBA::Long param) foo(CORBA::Char param) foo(CORBA::Boolean param) foo(CORBA::Octet param) foo(CORBA::WChar param) { { { { { { /**/ /**/ /**/ /**/ /**/ /**/ }; }; }; }; }; };
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The first three definitions of foo are guaranteed to work, but the final three definitions may not compile in some implementations For example, an ORB could map IDL char, boolean, and octet to C++ char and map IDL wchar to C++ short (In that case, the preceding definitions are ambiguous and will be rejected by the compiler) To keep your code portable, do not overload functions solely on Char, Boolean, and Octet, and do not overload on WChar and an integer type even if it happens to work for your particular ORB 663 Types Mappable to char IDL char, boolean, and octet may map to signed, unsigned, or plain char To keep your code portable, do not make assumptions in your code about whether these types are signed or unsigned 664 Mapping for wchar
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IDL wchar may map to a C++ integer type, such as int, or may map to C++ wchar_t The mapping to integer types accommodates non-standard compilers, in which wchar_t is not a distinct type 665 Boolean Mapping On standard C++ compilers, IDL boolean may be mapped to C++ bool; the specification permits this but does not require it If it is not mapped to C++ bool for example, on classic C++ compilers CORBA::Boolean maps to plain char, signed char, or unsigned char The C++ mapping does not require Boolean constants TRUE and FALSE (or true and false) to be provided (although true and false will work in a standard C++ environment) To keep your code portable, simply use the integer constants 1 and 0 as Boolean values; this works in both standard and classic environments 666 String and Wide String Mapping Strings are mapped to char *, and wide strings are mapped to CORBA::wchar * This is true whether you use bounded or unbounded strings If bounded strings are used, the mapping places the burden of enforcing the bound on the programmer It is unspecified what should happen if the length of a bounded string is exceeded at run time, so you must assume that the behavior is undefined The use of new and delete for dynamic allocation of strings is not portable Instead, you must use helper functions in the CORBA namespace:
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namespace CORBA { // static char * static char * static void static wchar * static wchar * static void //
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string_alloc(ULong len); string_dup(const char *); string_free(char *); wstring_alloc(ULong len); wstring_dup(const wchar *); wstring_free(wchar *);
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These functions handle dynamic memory for strings and wide strings The C++ mapping requires that you use these helper functions to avoid replacing global operator new[] and operator delete[] and because non-uniform memory architectures may have special requirements Under Windows, for example, memory allocated by a dynamic library must be deallocated by that same library The string allocation functions ensure that the correct memory management activities can take place For uniform memory models, such as in UNIX, string_alloc and string_free are usually implemented in terms of new[] and delete[]
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