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IT-SC book: Advanced CORBA Programming with C++
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Inserting a value into an Any does two things: it stores a copy of the value in the Any, and it sets the type code inside the Any to that of the inserted value This means that the casts in the preceding code are necessary For example, the following insertion is, strictly speaking, non-portable:
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a <<= 99; // Dubious!!!
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This insertion does not specify the type of the value to be inserted Instead, it depends on the C++ type of the literal 99 By definition, the literal 99 has the C++ type int However, the size of int is implementation-defined Depending on the architecture, a C++ int may be 16, 32, or 64 bits in size, and this means that the actual value that will be inserted could be of IDL type short, long, or long long Similar arguments apply to insertion of floating-point constants To be safe when inserting numeric literals, you should either use a cast or assign the literal to a variable of the correct type first and then insert the variable:
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CORBA::UShort val = 99; a <<= val; // OK, inserts 99 as an unsigned short a <<= (CORBA::UShort)99; // OK too a <<= static_cast<CORBA::UShort>(99); // OK, ANSI C++ version
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Another point to keep in mind is that insertion of a string into an Any makes a deep copy (unless you explicitly request a consuming insertion see Section 1535) This means that the following two insertions are equivalent (both insert a copy of the string):
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a <<= (const char *) "Hello"; a <<= (char *) "Hello"; // Deep copy // Deep copy as well
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Note that this differs from assignment of a string literal to a String_var, in which a deep copy is made if the right-hand side is a const char *, and a shallow copy is made otherwise The following code leaks memory and must not be used:
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a <<= CORBA::string_dup("Hello"); // Memory leak!
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This is wrong because the insertion operator already makes a copy, so the copy created by the call to string_dup is never deallocated Whenever you insert a new value into an Any that already stores a value, the insertion correctly deallocates the previous value For example:
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a <<= "Hello"; a <<= "World"; a <<= (CORBA::Long)5; // Insert copy of "Hello" // Deallocates "Hello", copies "World" // Deallocates "World"
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The C++ mapping provides overloaded <= insertion operators for the following IDL types: short, unsigned short, long, unsigned long, float, double,
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IT-SC book: Advanced CORBA Programming with C++
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unbounded string and wstring, and any (yes, you can insert an Any into another Any) If your ORB supports the newly added IDL types long long, unsigned long long, and long double, insertion operators for these types are also provided Other types, such as char, wchar, bounded strings and wide strings, fixed, and certain user-defined types, use other methods for insertion We cover them in the remainder of this chapter
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Basic Type Extraction
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To extract basic types, the C++ mapping provides overloaded >>= operators As you saw in the class introduction on page 667, the extraction operators expect a reference to a value as the right-hand argument and return a Boolean When you apply an extraction operator to a value of type Any, the extraction operator checks whether the type code inside the Any matches the type of its right-hand operand If it matches, the operator extracts the value and returns true If the value inside the Any does not match the righthand operand type, the extraction fails and the operator returns false The following code fragment tests that extraction succeeds as it should and uses the assert macro to ensure that the extracted value matches the value that was originally inserted:
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CORBA::Any a; a <<= (CORBA::Long)99; CORBA::Long val; if (!(a >>= val)) abort(); assert(val == 99); // Insert 99 as a long // operator>>=() must return true (We // know that the Any contains a Long) // Assertion must pass (We know // that the value must be 99)
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If you try to extract a value that does not match the type code in the Any, the extraction operator returns false:
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CORBA::Any a; a <<= (CORBA::Short)5; CORBA::Long val; if (a >>= val) abort(); // Extraction operator must return false // because the Any contains a Short
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The code tests that the extraction operator does indeed return false as expected Note that extraction from an Any requires a precise match of type As illustrated by this example, there is no concept of value promotion For example, you cannot extract a Short value into a Long variable even though the value would fit 1533 Types Not Distinguishable for Overloading
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