Explicit Location Resolution in Software

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When a client opens a connection and sends a request, it typically has no idea whether the connection leads to the implementation repository (and binding will be indirect) or whether the connection leads straight to the actual server (and binding will be direct) The client sends the request that was invoked by the application in either case If a request contains in or inout parameters that are large (larger than a few hundred bytes), indirect binding wastes bandwidth During indirect binding, the client sends in and inout parameters to the repository with the initial request The repository ignores the parameter values because it requires only the object key to return a new IOR to the client, and the client transmits the parameter values a second time when it sends the request to the actual server at the forwarding location To avoid this repeated marshaling of parameters, a client can explicitly resolve the location of a server by sending a LocateRequest message The body of a LocateRequest message contains only the object key If the parameter values are large, this approach can save considerable bandwidth A server that receives a LocateRequest message replies to the client with a LocateReply message If the client sends a LocateRequest message to the implementation repository, the repository resolves the request to a server location as usual and returns another IOR in the LocateReply message If the client sends a LocateRequest message to the actual server that implements the object, the server returns a LocateReply message with a special status that indicates that the client has already reached the correct location Many ORBs always use this optimization and unconditionally send a LocateRequest message (instead of sending a complete request) whenever they encounter an IOR that has not yet been bound: for requests with large parameters, the LocateRequest message saves bandwidth; for requests with small parameters, sending a LocateRequest message is no less efficient than sending a Request message but simplifies the ORB implementation The only disadvantage of always sending an explicit LocateRequest first is that binding of transient IORs requires two messages instead of a single message However, this is rarely a problem in practice because, in general-purpose ORBs, most IORs are persistent (At any rate, a LocateRequest message is sent only for the first operation invocation on an object, so the actual performance difference is negligible)
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Avoidance of Indirect Binding
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Indirect binding requires the client to always contact the implementation repository whenever a reference is used for the first time After the reference has been bound, subsequent requests do not involve the implementation repository because the client
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already has an open connection to the server implementing the object and therefore knows how to reach the object implementation However, in large systems, the indirection via the implementation repository during dispatch of the first request on an IOR can slow a system down considerably Not only does indirection require additional bandwidth, but it also can cause the repository to become a bottleneck If there are many clients in the system, the repository may not be able to keep up with the binding requests and so may limit overall throughput If a client receives a reference created by another vendor's ORB, the client has no choice except to follow the normal binding protocol The client has no idea how the object key encodes things such as the POA name (the object for the reference may not even be implemented using the POA) However, if the client receives an object reference that was created by the same ORB, it knows how to decode the object key If the ORB uses multicomponent profiles, the IOR can carry a reliable identification of the ORB vendor and model This knowledge is valuable to the client-side run time because it can extract the POA name from the object key inside the IOR If the client has previously bound a reference to an object in the same POA, it need not send the request to the implementation repository Instead, it can cache which POA names belong to which connection and send the request directly to the correct server
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