Direct Binding in Software

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143 Direct Binding
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Whenever a server application creates an object reference, the server-side run time embeds information to support binding inside the object reference Specifically, an IOR contains an IP address (or host name), TCP port number, and an object key If a server inserts its own address and port number into a reference, the reference uses direct binding An ORB can use direct binding for both transient and persistent references As you saw in Section 1141, a transient IOR continues to work only for as long as its associated POA exists After the POA is destroyed or its server shuts down, a transient reference becomes permanently non-functional; it never works again even if its POA is re-created or its server is restarted Conversely, a persistent IOR continues to denote the same object even if the server shuts down and is restarted 1431 Direct Binding for Transient References Transient references always rely on direct binding[1] When a server creates an IOR using a POA with a TRANSIENT life span policy, the server-side run time embeds binding information in the IOR
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[1] The CORBA specification does not require this, so transient references could also use indirect binding However, no ORB we are aware of actually does this, because indirect binding for transient references complicates the ORB without providing any benefits
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The address and port number in the profile body are set to the server's own address and port number The object key of the IOR is set to contain two elements The name of the POA used to create the IOR Transient POAs must have names that are unique in space and time among all other POAs in an ORB domain To enforce this, the ORB can prefix a unique identifier to the POA name when a transient POA is created For example, the ORB can use a universally unique identifier (UUID) to ensure that no transient POA can ever have a name that was used for another transient POA at some time in the past An object ID that is unique within the scope of the associated POA Because the object ID need be unique only within the scope of its POA, ORBs, for example, can keep a counter in each POA using the TRANSIENT policy The counter is incremented for every new reference created by this POA, so all IORs for this POA carry a different object ID The ORB is not obliged to use a counter and can use some other strategy to generate unique object IDs When a client receives a transient reference and invokes the first request, the client-side run time extracts the address and port number from the profile body of the IOR and attempts to open a connection This connection attempt can encounter one of the following cases
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The server is running at the host and port indicated by the reference In this case, the client sends a request message to the server The request message contains the object key The object key consists of (among other things) the POA name and the object ID The server uses the POA name to locate the appropriate POA, and the POA uses the object ID to locate the appropriate servant If both POA and servant exist (or can be activated), binding succeeds and the request is dispatched to the servant No process is listening at the host and port indicated by the reference The client's attempt to open a connection to the server fails, and the client-side run time raises a TRANSIENT exception in the application The original server that created the reference was shut down, and a different server has since been started at the same port as the original server In this case, the client sends the request to the server that is listening at the port The server receives the request and attempts to locate a POA with a matching name However, because all transient POAs have unique names, the POA name in the object key does not match any of the server's POA names Accordingly, the server returns an OBJECT_NOT_EXIST exception to the client, and binding fails, as it should The original server was shut down but later was restarted and happened to get the same port number Even though the same server is listening at the same address as originally, binding must fail because a transient reference is valid only for the lifetime of its POA Again, the client sends the request to the server after opening the connection However, the POA name in the object key is guaranteed not to match any of the POA names used by the server Even if the server code creates a transient POA with the same name as that of a previous transient POA, the ORB enforces uniqueness of the transient POA name by prefixing a UUID (or a similar pseudo-random identifier) to the name The POA name mismatch results in the server sending an OBJECT_NOT_EXIST exception to the client, and binding fails, as it should In summary, binding of transient references relies on the actual host address and port number of the server If the server is still running at that address and port number when the client invokes a request, binding succeeds If the server is no longer running, the client-side run time raises a TRANSIENT exception If another server instance is running at that address and port number, the server receiving the request returns an OBJECT_NOT_EXIST exception to the client because the POA name in the object key does not match any of the server's POA names 1432 Direct Binding of Persistent References
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