An Overview of IIOP in Software

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137 An Overview of IIOP
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GIOP specifies most of the protocol details that are necessary for clients and servers to communicate GIOP is independent of a particular transport and is therefore an abstract protocol, whereas IIOP is specific to TCP/IP and is therefore a concrete implementation (or mapping) of GIOP To turn GIOP into a concrete protocol, IIOP merely needs to
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specify the encoding of IORs Recall from Section 253 that an IOR consists of three main components: the repository ID, the endpoint information, and the object key IIOP merely specifies how an IOR encodes the TCP/IP addressing information inside an IOR, so the client can establish a connection to the server to send a request Like GIOP, IIOP has been revised twice since its inception, so CORBA specifies IIOP 10, 11, and 12 IIOP 11 adds the notion of tagged components to an IOR Tagged components are required to support some of the newer features of CORBA, such as support for different wide character codesets IIOP 12 supports the bidirectional functionality of GIOP 12 Any version of IIOP references can be carried over any version of GIOP However, for bidirectional functionality to be available, IIOP 12 requires GIOP 12 or later The endpoint information inside an IOR that uses IIOP is encoded according to the following IDL:
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module IIOP { struct Version { octet major; octet minor; }; // PIDL
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struct ProfileBody_1_1 { Version iiop_version; string host; unsigned short port; sequence<octet> object_key; sequence<IOP::TaggedComponent> components; }; };
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We show the version 11 and 12 definition here (the 10 definition is identical except that it does not use tagged components) A structure of type ProfileBody_1_1 completely identifies the target object of a request: both the host and port at which the server can be found and the object in that server the request is for The iiop_version field indicates the major and minor revision of the protocol The host and port fields specify the host and port number at which the server listens for requests The host can be encoded either in dotted-decimal notation (such as 234234234234) or as a host name (such as acmecom) The object_key field is a sequence of octets that identifies the particular target object The components field contains a sequence of tagged components (for IIOP 11 only) Each tagged component is a structure containing two fields The first field identifies the type of component, and the second one contains the data for that component (see page 628)
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A structure of type ProfileBody_1_1 applies only to IIOP and encodes how a client can locate the target object of a request If a server uses IIOP as its transport, object references created by that server contain an IIOP profile body To establish a connection, the client side decodes that profile body and uses the host and port number to establish a connection to the server Having established a connection, the client sends the object key with every request In other words, the host and port identify the target server, and the object key is decoded by the server to determine which specific object should receive the request
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138 Structure of an IOR
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CORBA uses interoperable object references as the universal means of identifying an object As mentioned in Section 251, object references are opaque to the client-side application code and completely encapsulate everything that is necessary to send requests, including the transport and protocol to be used IIOP is the main interoperable protocol used by CORBA, and every ORB claiming interoperability must support IIOP CORBA also specifies another protocol, known as the DCE Common Inter-ORB Protocol (DCE-CIOP) This protocol is optional (interoperable ORBs need not support it) and uses DCE-RPC as its underlying transport DCE-CIOP is an example of what is known as an environment-specific inter-ORB protocol (ESIOP) Environment-specific protocols permit use of CORBA over transports and protocols other than TCP/IP and permit vendors to support proprietary protocols that are optimized for particular environments As CORBA evolves, we will see support for other transports and protocols For example, it is likely that a future version will support connection-oriented GIOP over ATM networks and also allow use of connectionless transports such as UDP This means that object references must be extensible so that future protocols can be added without breaking existing clients and servers CORBA specifies an encoding for IORs that meets this requirement Not only can IORs be extended to carry protocol information for future protocols, but also it is possible for vendors to add their own proprietary protocols In addition, a single IOR can contain information for multiple protocols For example, an IOR can contain both IIOP and DCE-CIOP information simultaneously In that way, clients that are limited to DCE-CIOP can use the same IOR to communicate with an object that clients that are limited to IIOP can use If a client has access to both transports simultaneously, the ORB run time dynamically chooses which transport to use for a request An IOR can also contain multiple profile bodies for the same protocol For example, an IOR could contain three IIOP profiles, each indicating a different host and port number When a client invokes a request via the IOR, the ORB run time dynamically chooses one of the three server endpoints indicated in the IOR This provides a hook for load balancing as well as fault-tolerant ORBs that replicate the same single CORBA object in multiple server processes[8]
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