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IT-SC book: Advanced CORBA Programming with C++
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Part II: Core CORBA
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IT-SC book: Advanced CORBA Programming with C++
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4 The OMG Interface Definition Language
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41 Overview
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In this chapter we present the OMG Interface Definition Language (IDL) We start by discussing the role and purpose of IDL, explaining how language-independent specifications are compiled for particular implementation languages to create actual implementations Sections 44 through 47 present the low-level (and sometimes boring) details you must eventually confront with any programming language You may wish to skim this material and return to it later Sections 48 through 420 cover the core IDL concepts of interfaces, operations, exceptions, and inheritance These concepts have profound influence on the behavior of a distributed system and should be read in detail Section 421 discusses recent changes and additions to IDL
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42 Introduction
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The OMG IDL is CORBA's fundamental abstraction mechanism for separating object interfaces from their implementations OMG IDL establishes a contract between client and server that describes the types and object interfaces used by an application This description is independent of the implementation language, so it does not matter whether the client is written in the same language as the server IDL definitions are compiled for a particular implementation language by an IDL compiler The compiler translates the language-independent definitions into languagespecific type definitions and APIs These types and APIs are used by the developer to provide application functionality and to interact with the ORB The translation algorithms for various implementation languages are specified by CORBA and are known as language mappings Currently, CORBA defines language mappings for C, C++, Smalltalk, COBOL, Ada, and Java Independent efforts are under way to provide additional language mappings for Eiffel, Modula 3, Lisp, Perl, Tcl, Python, Dylan, Oberon, Visual Basic, and Objective-C Some of these mappings may eventually become standards Because IDL describes interfaces but not implementations, it is a purely declarative language There is no way to write executable statements in IDL, and there is no way to say anything about object state (execution and state are implementation concerns) IDL definitions focus on object interfaces, the operations supported by those interfaces, and exceptions that may be raised by operations This requires quite a bit of supporting machinery; in particular, a large part of IDL is concerned with the definition of data types This is because data can be exchanged between client and server only if their types are defined in IDL You cannot exchange arbitrary C++ data between client and server because it would destroy the language independence of CORBA However, you can
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always create an IDL type definition that corresponds to the C++ data you want to send, and then you can transmit the IDL type We present the full syntax and semantics of IDL here Because much of IDL is based on C++, we focus on those areas where IDL differs from C++ or constrains the equivalent C++ feature in some way IDL features that are identical to C++ are mentioned mostly by example You can find the full IDL specification in [18] Note that there are many interface definition languages, typically all called "IDL" For example, DCE uses its own version of an interface definition language to describe types and remote procedure calls In this book, when we use IDL, we are referring to the IDL defined and published by the OMG
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43 Compilation
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An IDL compiler produces source files that must be combined with application code to produce client and server executables In this section, we present only a conceptual view of this process because CORBA does not standardize the development environment This means that details, such as the names and number of generated source files, vary from ORB to ORB However, the concepts are the same for all ORBs and implementation languages The outcome of the development process is a client executable and a server executable These executables can be deployed anywhere, whether they are developed using the same ORB or different ORBs and whether they are implemented using the same or different languages The only constraint is that the host machines must provide the necessary runtime environment, such as any required dynamic libraries, and that connectivity can be established between them 431 Single Development Environment for Client and Server Figure 41 shows the situation when both client and server are developed in C++ and use the same ORB The IDL compiler generates four files from the IDL definition: two header files (typeshh and servhh), a stub file (stubscc), and a skeleton file (skelscc)
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