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Figure 101 Implementation inheritance (generated classes are shaded)
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The alternative is to use interface inheritance, which is shown in Figure 102 Note that in Figure 102, Thermostat_impl does not inherit from Thermometer_impl This approach means that Thermostat_impl must implement six virtual functions: four to implement the attributes of Thermometer, and two to implement the operations of Thermostat
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Figure 102 Interface inheritance (generated classes are shaded)
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Which approach is more suitable depends on your design and your requirements It is possible that the implementation of thermometers differs considerably from the one for thermostats, for example, if thermometers and thermostats use different protocols (and therefore different APIs) In that case, interface inheritance will be the better approach On the other hand, if both thermometers and thermostats are implemented using the same API, there is no good reason not to reuse the base class implementation and choose implementation inheritance We point out the difference between the two approaches here because it typically comes as a surprise to C++ programmers In C++, implementation inheritance is the default, and you must make special efforts to get interface inheritance only In contrast, given how
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implementations are derived from skeletons, the POA leaves the choice completely open letting you choose the preferable design For our example implementation, we use implementation inheritance This results in the following class definition:
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class Thermostat_impl : public virtual POA_CCS::Thermostat, public virtual Thermometer_impl { public: // CORBA operations virtual CCS::TempType get_nominal() throw(CORBA::SystemException); virtual CCS::TempType set_nominal( CCS::TempType new_temp ) throw( CORBA::SystemException, CCS::Thermostat::BadTemp ); // Constructor and destructor Thermostat_impl( CCS::AssetType anum, const char * location, CCS::TempType nominal_temp ); virtual ~Thermostat_impl() {} private: // Helper functions CCS::TempType get_nominal_temp() CCS::TempType set_nominal_temp(CCS::TempType new_temp) throw(CCS::Thermostat::BadTemp); // Copy and assignment not supported Thermostat_impl(const Thermostat_impl &); void operator=(const Thermostat_impl &); };
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As with Thermometer_impl, we have added a constructor and a destructor along with private helper functions to handle the network API We have hidden the copy constructor and the assignment operator
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107 Implementing the Thermostat Servant Class
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The implementation of this class is mostly straightforward As before, the implementation naturally falls into three sections for the helper functions, the IDL operations, and the constructor and destructor 1071 Thermostat_impl Helper Functions
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The implementation of the get_nominal_temp helper simply invokes the corresponding ICP_get function However, for set_nominal_temp, we must do extra work because ICP_set neither returns the previous nominal temperature nor reports error conditions at the level of detail we require:
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// Helper function to get a thermostat's nominal temperature CCS::TempType Thermostat_impl:: get_nominal_temp() { short temp; if (ICP_get(m_anum, "nominal_temp", &temp, sizeof (temp)) != 0) abort(); return temp;
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// Helper function to set a thermostat's nominal temperature CCS::TempType Thermostat_impl:: set_nominal_temp(CCS::TempType new_temp) throw(CCS::Thermostat::BadTemp) { short old_temp; // // // if We need to return the previous nominal temperature, so we first read the current nominal temperature before changing it (ICP_get( m_anum, "nominal_temp", &old_temp, sizeof (old_temp) ) != 0) { abort();
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// Now set the nominal temperature to the new value if (ICP_set(m_anum, "nominal_temp", &new_temp) != 0) { // If ICP_set() failed, read this thermostat's minimum // and maximum so we can initialize the BadTemp exception CCS::Thermostat::BtData btd; ICP_get( m_anum, "MIN_TEMP", &btdmin_permitted, sizeof(btdmin_permitted) ); ICP_get( m_anum, "MAX_TEMP", &btdmax_permitted, sizeof(btdmax_permitted) ); btdrequested = new_temp; btderror_msg = CORBA::string_dup( new_temp > btdmax_permitted "Too hot" : "Too cold" ); throw CCS::Thermostat::BadTemp(btd);
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return old_temp;
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Note that set_nominal_temp first reads the current nominal temperature so that it can return the previous nominal temperature to the caller If ICP_set fails, the function reads the minimum and maximum permissible settings from the device and uses that data to initialize and throw a BadTemp exception 1072 Thermostat_impl IDL Operations Given the helper functions we just defined, the implementation of the IDL operations of Thermostat_impl is trivial The operations simply forward the call to the corresponding helper:
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CCS::TempType Thermostat_impl:: get_nominal() throw(CORBA::SystemException) { return get_nominal_temp(); } // IDL set_nominal operation CCS::TempType Thermostat_impl:: set_nominal(CCS::TempType new_temp) throw(CORBA::SystemException, CCS::Thermostat::BadTemp) { return set_nominal_temp(new_temp); }
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1073 Thermostat_impl Constructor and Destructor The destructor of Thermostat_impl has an empty inline definition (all the work is done by the base class destructor) The constructor passes the relevant parameters to its base class constructor and initializes the nominal temperature of the thermostat:
// Constructor Thermostat_impl:: Thermostat_impl( CCS::AssetType anum, const char * location, CCS::TempType nominal_temp ) : Thermometer_impl(anum, location) { // Base Thermometer_impl constructor does most of the // work, so we need only set the nominal temperature here set_nominal_temp(nominal_temp);