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Note that in all cases, the actual type of out parameters is typename_out rather than what is shown in the out column of the table However, the functions behave as if the actual type were that shown in the table 71412 Using _var Types to Pass Parameters Much of the complexity of the parameter passing rules arises from the need for the caller to deallocate variable-length parameters In addition, parameter passing is complicated by the different rules for fixed-length and variable-length complex types The main motivation for _var types is that they hide these differences Table 74 shows the parameter passing rules if you use _var types instead of the low-level mapping Note that the _var types not only take care of deallocation but also hide the differences between fixed-length and variable-length types
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Table 74 Parameter passing with _var types in inout/out String_var & String_var & WString_var & WString_var & Any_var & Any_var & objref_var & objref_var & sequence_var & sequence_var &
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Simple types, enumerated types, and fixed-point types are necessarily absent from the table _var types are not generated for these types because _var types are not needed (simple types are always fixed-length, caller-allocated, and passed by value) Note that _var types are provided for in parameters even though no memory management issues arise here This is both for consistency and to allow a _var type to be passed transparently when an operation expects the underlying type Following is an example that illustrates the advantages The example uses a fixed-length and a variable-length struct passed as out parameters, and a string as the return value Here is the IDL:
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struct Fls { long l_mem; double d_mem; }; struct Vls { double d_mem; string s_mem; }; interface Foo { string op(out Fls fstruct, out Vls vstruct); };
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If you use the low-level mapping and choose to manage memory yourself, you must write code such as the following:
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Foo_var fv = ; Fls fstruct; Vls * vstruct; char * ret_val; // Get reference // Note _real_ struct // Note _pointer_ to struct
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ret_val = fv->op(fstruct, vstruct); delete vstruct; CORBA::string_free(ret_val);
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This doesn't look very bad at first glance, but it contains its share of potential problems You must remember to pass a structure as the first parameter and a pointer to a structure as the second parameter, and you also must remember that the variable-length structure and the returned string must be deallocated Moreover, you must remember to use the correct deallocation function If your code has any degree of complexity, throws
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exceptions, and possibly takes early returns out of functions, you can easily make a mistake that leads to a memory leak or, worse, causes memory corruption because you deallocated something twice The same code using _var types is much simpler:
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Foo_var fv = ; Fls_var fstruct = ; Vls_var vstruct; CORBA::String_var ret_val; // Get reference // Don't care if fixed or variable // Ditto // To catch return value
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ret_val = fv->op(fstruct, vstruct); // Show cout << cout << cout << some return "fstructd: "vstructd: "ret_val: values " << fstruct->d_mem << endl; " << vstruct->d_mem << endl; " << ret_val << endl;
// Deallocation (if needed) is taken care of by _var types
The differences in parameter passing rules for the two structures are completely hidden here To access the structure members, you use the overloaded indirection -> operator whether the underlying structure is fixed-length or variable-length When the three _var types go out of scope, vstruct calls delete, ret_val calls string_free, and fstruct does nothing because it wraps a stack-allocated structure Because _var types can also be passed as in and inout parameters, it is easy to receive a result from one operation and pass that result to another operation Consider the following IDL:
interface Foo { string get(); void modify(inout string s); void put(in string s); };
Assume that you are given stringified references to three of these objects and that you want to get a string from the first object, pass it to the second object for modification, and then pass the modified string to the third object Using _var types, this is trivial:
{ Foo_var fv1 = orb->string_to_object(argv[1]); Foo_var fv2 = orb->string_to_object(argv[2]); Foo_var fv3 = orb->string_to_object(argv[3]); // Test fv1, fv2, and fv3 with CORBA::is_nil() here CORBA::String_var s;