The Tests Say in Java

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The Tests Say
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When writing a test, we ask ourselves, If this worked, who would know If the right answer to that question is not in the target object, it s probably time to introduce a new collaborator
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Achieving Object-Oriented Design
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In 13, we introduce an Auction interface The concept of making a bid would have been an additional responsibility for AuctionSniper, so we introduce a new service for bidding just an interface without any implementation We write a new test to show the relationship between AuctionSniper and Auction Then we write a concrete implementation of Auction initially as an anonymous class in Main, later as XMPPAuction
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Bundling Up: Hiding Related Objects into a Containing Object
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This is the application of the composite simpler than the sum of its parts rule (page 53) When we have a cluster of related objects that work together, we can package them up in a containing object The new object hides the complexity in an abstraction that allows us to program at a higher level The process of making an implicit concept concrete has some other nice effects First, we have to give it a name which helps us understand the domain a little better Second, we can scope dependencies more clearly, since we can see the boundaries of the concept Third, we can be more precise with our unit testing We can test the new composite object directly, and use a mock implementation to simplify the tests for code from which it was extracted (since, of course, we added an interface for the role the new object plays)
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The Tests Say
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When the test for an object becomes too complicated to set up when there are too many moving parts to get the code into the relevant state consider bundling up some of the collaborating objects There s an example in Bloated Constructor (page 238)
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In 17, we introduce XMPPAuctionHouse to package up everything to do with the messaging infrastructure, and SniperLauncher for constructing and attaching a Sniper Once extracted, the references to Swing behavior in SniperLauncher stand out as inappropriate, so we introduce SniperCollector to decouple the domains
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Refactor Interfaces Too
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Identify Relationships with Interfaces
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We use Java interfaces more liberally than some other developers This re ects our emphasis on the relationships between objects, as de ned by their communication protocols We use interfaces to name the roles that objects can play and to describe the messages they ll accept We also prefer interfaces to be as narrow as possible, even though that means we need more of them The fewer methods there are on an interface, the more obvious is its role in the calling object We don t have to worry which other methods are relevant to a particular call and which were included for convenience Narrow interfaces are also easier to write adapters and decorators for; there s less to implement, so it s easier to write objects that compose together well Pulling interfaces into existence, as we described in Budding Off, helps us keep them as narrow as possible Driving an interface from its client avoids leaking excess information about its implementers, which minimizes any implicit coupling between objects and so keeps the code malleable
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Impl Classes Are Meaningless Sometimes we see code with classes named by adding Impl to the single interface they implement This is better than leaving the class name unchanged and pre xing an I to the interface, but not by much A name like BookingImpl is duplication; it says exactly the same as implements Booking, which is a code smell We would not be happy with such obvious duplication elsewhere in our code, so we ought to refactor it away It might just be a naming problem There s always something speci c about an implementation that can be included in the class name: it might use a bounded collection, communicate over HTTP, use a database for persistence, and so on A bridging class is even easier to name, since it will belong in one domain but implement interfaces in another If there really isn t a good implementation name, it might mean that the interface is poorly named or designed Perhaps it s unfocused because it has too many responsibilities; or it s named after its implementation rather than its role in the client; or it s a value, not an object this discrepancy sometimes turns up when writing unit tests, see Don t Mock Values (page 237)
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