Disk Defragmentation in .NET framework

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One of the advantages of NTFS is that it has a map of free space on the volume This enables new les to be written contiguously where possible, avoiding fragmentation However, defragmentation is still necessary, and Microsoft made Disk Defragmenter part of its Windows 2000 product line Available from Accessories, System Tools, Disk Defragmenter, it gives a view of the volumes on the computer When executed, a check is initially performed on the le system (see Figure 5-7) Also, advice is given on the state of the le system and what action should be performed If you choose to perform a defragmentation, the list of volumes is shown Select the volumes to be defragmented, as shown in Figure 5-8 Additionally, you can select to Run on a Schedule (Recommended) by checking the box (refer to Figure 5-7) Decide when, how often, and on which volumes to perform the defragmentation
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FIGURE 5-7
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The Windows Server 2008 disk defragmenter runs an analysis when rst executed and defragments if required
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5 FILE SYSTEM AND PRINT MANAGEMENT FEATURES
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FIGURE 5-8
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The volumes to be defragmented must be selected
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A command-line interface for defragexe is available This is useful for scripting execution of the disk defragmentation and more customized scheduling of the execution The a switch performs analysis only and gives details of the fragmentation state, as shown here:
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C:\Windows\system32>defrag c: -a Windows Disk Defragmenter Copyright (c) 2006 Microsoft Corp
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5
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File System and Print Management Features
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Analysis report for volume C: Volume size Free space Largest free space extent Percent le fragmentation = 7812 GB = 6516 GB = 3906 GB = 2 %
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Note: On NTFS volumes, le fragments larger than 64MB are not included in the fragmentation statistics You do not need to defragment this volume
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w performs a full defragmentation, and the r switch performs a fast
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defragmentation (only defragmenting les smaller than 64MB) Full help can be seen with the - switch The paging le is not defragmented with the free utility Purchase a third-party defragmentation utility if you want to defragment the paging le However, the paging le usually doesn t fragment too much if you reboot regularly because the page le is shrunk to its original size at each reboot
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Data management is vital in any environment, and Windows is no exception In a number of environments, storing data is worse than not storing data because data is often sensitive, and you need to ensure only the right people can get to it In addition, as you store more data, tracking who is using data, where, and for what; ownership; the type of information; and reporting become more important
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File Ownership
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The rest of this chapter discusses NTFS, which stores data more reliably and allows other facilities because of its metadata-based approach One of the attributes of a le or folder is its owner This is derived from the creator of the le or folder and can be viewed by right-clicking the le or folder, selecting Properties, selecting the Security tab, clicking the Advanced button, and then selecting the Owner tab The owner information can be seen in Figure 5-9
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5 FILE SYSTEM AND PRINT MANAGEMENT FEATURES
FIGURE 5-9
In this example, the le owner is shown as John Savill
If you have the correct permissions, you can change the owner to yourself or to the Administrators group using the same dialog box If you click the Edit button, you can search the local computer s account database or an Active Directory (AD) and select any user by clicking the Other Users or Groups button, as shown in Figure 5-10 After being selected, any user can be given the ownership The process is identical for folders except that if ownership is modi ed for a folder, an additional Replace Owner on Subcontainers and Objects check box is available If enabled, it changes the owner on subfolders and les
5
File System and Print Management Features
FIGURE 5-10
Beyond the current user and administrators, the Other Users or Groups button allows any account to be listed as an owner target
Windows Vista retains the takeown command that allows the ownership of a le to be taken from the command line A number of switches specify a remote system (/s), username (/u), and password (/p) To see all switches, use takeown / Here is a basic example of taking ownership of a speci c le:
D:\Documents>takeown /f musicxls SUCCESS: The le (or folder): D:\Documents\musicxls now owned by user SAVILLTECH\john
To take ownership of a folder and all its content, add the /r switch for recursive execution:
D:\Documents\takeown /f /r SUCCESS: The le (or folder): D:\Documents now owned by user SAVILLTECH\john SUCCESS: The le (or folder): D:\Documents\musicxls now owned by user SAVILLTECH\john