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BitLocker does have an integrity concern if you use a PIN or USB key to unlock the FVEK: If you lose the USB key or forget the PIN, because you won t be able to unlock the drive, the data you were trying to secure is now so secure you can t access it Therefore, when you enable BitLocker, you can con gure a recovery password as an emergency access control, and this recovery password should be kept in a secure location so it s not lost but also can t be easily accessed As an alternative, you can store the recovery password in Active Directory (AD) (This process is documented on TechNet Search http://technetmicrosoftcom for BitLocker drive encryption Active Directory back up ) If you ever need to use the restoration password for example, if you can t remember the PIN or if you lose the USB device you are prompted to enter the recovery password automatically To decrypt a BitLocker-enabled drive, use the -off switch with the volume name You have some options here There are times when you need to disable the normal BitLocker process (for example, during a major upgrade, such as an in-place upgrade but not a normal service pack or hot x application) Other situations, such as BIOS updates and TPM rmware and other component changes, might modify the boot environment and also require BitLocker to be disabled Notice this is disable and not decrypt When you decrypt, the entire drive is decrypted and is stored in clear form When you disable BitLocker, the drive is left encrypted, but the BitLocker volume master key is encrypted with a clear key that is stored on the local drive in an unencrypted form, meaning access to the BitLocker encrypted drive is possible without any USB, PIN, or TPM help This saves the time of decrypting and then encrypting again (which could take hours) after the changes but still relies on booting from the S: drive initially, which does not work for system upgrades, hence the need for certain scenarios requiring a decryption rst To decrypt/disable, access the BitLocker Drive Encryption Control Panel applet and click the Turn Off BitLocker link A dialog appears, giving you the option to disable or decrypt, as shown in Figure 4-6 If you disable and then want to enable again, just go back to the BitLocker Drive Encryption Control Panel applet and select the Turn On BitLocker link One snippet of information you may have heard about BitLocker is that its unbreakable encryption is vulnerable to a cold boot attack A cold boot attack is nothing new; its use against BitLocker is just a new twist on an old technique, facilitated by the fact that when you turn off a computer, the volatile RAM keeps the information stored for between 25 and
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30 seconds under normal circumstances and even minutes if you cool the RAM chips This is mainly a problem for DRAM memory, which uses a capacitor for each bit With a cold boot attack, a hacker powers off a computer and then boots it to a special program that copies the content of the memory to a USB key Then the hacker can scan the dump of the memory for the old information and extract keys that are used for the disk encryption There are some algorithms available that make nding the encryption keys among all the memory dumped quite easy
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FIGURE 4-6 To turn off BitLocker, use Disable to avoid decrypting the entire drive To protect against cold boot attacks, exercise good physical security on your servers and disable booting from USB devices These measures cannot stop an attack, but they make an attack harder to accomplish If an attacker has the physical box, she can power it down, take out the RAM, and put it in another box (unless you solder the RAM to the motherboard) To protect against these attacks on laptops, power them off and do not leave them in sleep mode in public The use of a TPM does not help because the TPM stores the key initially and then puts it in memory to do decryption You can see a video of cold boot attacks in action at wwwhackaday com/2008/02/21/breaking-disk-encryption-with-ram-dumps/, and you can find a full paper on these attacks at http://citpprincetonedu/pub/ coldbootpdf
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