THE COMMAND PROMPT AND POWERSHELL in Visual Studio .NET

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22 THE COMMAND PROMPT AND POWERSHELL
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Let s go back a step Earlier in this chapter, you wrote out the registered owner of the operating system by navigating to a child item under HKLM:, which represents the Registry hive HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE This was used in the same way as navigating the le system Is this true In the preceding paragraph, all the functions were listed by the content of the function data store To see a list of the data stores available to the PowerShell, use the getpsdrive cmdlet with no parameters, as shown here:
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PS C:\Users\johnSAVILLTECH> get-psdrive Name ---A Alias C cert D Env Function HKCU HKLM Variable Provider -------FileSystem Alias FileSystem Certi cate FileSystem Environment Function Registry Registry Variable Root ---A:\ C:\ \ D:\ CurrentLocation ---------------
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Users\johnSAVILLTECH
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HKEY_CURRENT_USER HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
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In this list, you see the familiar drive letters you would expect, but also data stores for Alias, cert (certi cate store), env (environment), function, HKCU (HKEY_CURRENT_USER Registry hive), HKLM (HKEY_ LOCAL_MACHINE Registry hive), and variable All of these can be navigated to using the Set-Location cmdlet (or the cd alias, if you re not ready for PowerShell native cmdlets yet) Let s move to HKLM and then list it out and move around:
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PS C:\Users\johnSAVILLTECH> cd hklm: PS HKLM:\> dir
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The Command Prompt and PowerShell
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Hive: MicrosoftPowerShellCore\Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SKC VC Name Property --- -- ----------2 0 BCD00000000 {} 4 4 COMPONENTS {StoreFormatVersion, StoreArchitecture, PublisherPolicyChangeTime, PoqexecFai 4 0 HARDWARE {} 1 0 SAM {} Get-ChildItem : Requested registry access is not allowed At line:1 char:3 + dir <<<< 51 1 SOFTWARE {(default)} 9 0 SYSTEM {}
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PS HKLM:\> cd HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\ CurrentVersion PS HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion> dir
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Hive: MicrosoftPowerShellCore\Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion Property -------{} {UserDebuggerHotKey, Debugger} 0 10 APITracing {LogFileDirectory, InstalledManifests, LogApiNamesOnly, LogApisRecursively} 2 1 AppCompatFlags {ApphelpUIExe} 0 174 Compatibility {_3DPC, _BNOTES, _LNOTES, ACAD} 0 1 Compatibility32 {winword} 3 0 Console {} SKC --1 1 VC -0 2 Name ---Accessibility AeDebug
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You received a permissions error when listing the root of HKLM This was the SECURITY key to which you don t have access; however, you can navigate through the rest of the Registry and list out child keys using the standard dir command alias The SKC column is the Subkey count of the
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key, and the VC is the value count As you move around the Registry, you can press Tab for completion With PowerShell, you can perform wildcard completion (For example, if you wanted Windows NT, you could type wi*nt and press Tab, and it would expand accordingly) You can even use TAB expansion on cmdlet names, which can help if you are unsure of the name of the cmdlet To look at the properties of the current Registry key, use the getitemproperty cmdlet with * as the name:
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PS HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT> get-itemproperty * PSPath : MicrosoftPowerShellCore\Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion PSParentPath : MicrosoftPowerShellCore\Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT PSChildName : CurrentVersion PSDrive : HKLM PSProvider : MicrosoftPowerShellCore\Registry CurrentVersion : 60 CurrentBuildNumber : 6000 CurrentBuild : 6000 SoftwareType : System CurrentType : Multiprocessor Free InstallDate : 1163804828 SystemRoot : C:\Windows ProductName : Windows Vista (TM) Ultimate
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22 THE COMMAND PROMPT AND POWERSHELL
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Likewise, you can do far more than just view the data This is not readonly information you can also set values and move data (as if it were les), but obviously care should be taken Deleting les or moving les can be inconvenient, but mostly you won t corrupt the system (unless you are playing in the systemroot area) However, changing Registry keys can have a damaging impact Let s say you want to change the registered user; you use the set-itemproperty cmdlet:
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set-itemproperty -path -name RegisteredOwner -value Achilles
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The Command Prompt and PowerShell
Notice that you passed a path of , which is the current location, the name of the property to change, and its new value You ve already seen the normal le systems, the Registry, and the function data store Let s look only at the env store, which is the environment store If you change store to env: and then execute dir (or getchilditem), you see all the environment variables:
PS D:\> cd env: PS Env:\> get-childitem | Sort-Object -property name Value ----C:\ProgramData C:\Users\johnSAVILLTECH\ AppData\Roaming CLASSPATH ;C:\Program Files\QuickTime\QTSystem\QTJavazip CommonProgramFiles C:\Program Files\Common Files COMPUTERNAME SAVDALWKS01 ComSpec C:\Windows\system32\cmdexe currentchapter 22 FP_NO_HOST_CHECK NO Name ---ALLUSERSPROFILE APPDATA
Although this does provide a way to inspect environment variables, there is another method It is possible to just use $env:<name of environment variable> This is because you are outputting a variable that is stored in the environment (env) namespace For example, to view the systemroot variable, use $env:systemroot: