FIGURE 10-29 Creating a new site link in Visual Studio .NET

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FIGURE 10-29 Creating a new site link
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FIGURE 10-30 Modifying a new site link s properties Finally, create the IP subnets and link them to the correct sites by selecting New Subnet from the Subnets node context menu Enter the subnet in the format of subnet ID followed by the number of bits in the mask For example, 19216820/24 would refer to the 192168200 subnet and the 24 means a mask of 2552552550 Also select the site from the list of con gured sites as shown in Figure 10-31 With the sites de ned, AD is aware of where the domain controllers are physically located and the network connectivity between them The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) uses this knowledge to create connection objects between domain controllers to de ne a replication topology used for the replication of AD data in the most ef cient manner Additionally, clients now know which physical location they reside in Instead of randomly selecting a domain controller, for example, the client can be told to use a domain controller in its local location (or the closest location if no domain controller is available in its local site) This is known as site awareness Most major AD services are site aware, minimizing traf c sent over slower WAN type links by sending clients to services in its local site where possible In fact, if a domain controller receives authentication requests from a client and the domain controller is not the client s closest domain controller, it instructs the client to nd a domain controller in its site instead It does this by querying DNS for a domain controller in a speci c site
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FIGURE 10-31 Creating a new subnet By default, the KCC component runs every 15 minutes, checking whether the topology generated is the most ef cient The KCC runs on every domain controller, which might lead you to believe it would be possible for domain controllers to create different topologies leading to problems with the replication However, because each domain controller uses the same algorithm to create the topology and each domain controller has a replica of the common con guration partition that contains the site information, the output is the same result The actual connection objects created by the KCC vary depending on whether the connection objects are created within (intra) a site or between (inter) sites Remember that within a site, by de nition, all the computers are connected by a high bandwidth network, a LAN So, it is assumed that network bandwidth is plentiful and replication can be based on the fastest update of all the domain controllers in the site The traf c generated is not a concern To achieve this fast replication, domain controllers within a site use a ring topology to replicate information Every domain controller has at least
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two connections to other domain controllers within the site, its neighbors in the ring However, in a site with a lot of domain controllers, additional replication objects are created between certain domain controllers to ensure that there are never more than three hops between any two domain controllers (see Figure 10-32) This ensures that changes do not take excessive time to replicate throughout a site because a change replicates to the domain controller s replication partners, and then on the next replication, the domain controller, which then replicates the newly found change to its replication partners, and so on If there were 10 hops between domain controllers, the change would take 10 replication cycles to reach the furthest domain controller
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FIGURE 10-32 In a site with a large number of domain controllers, additional replication
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objects have to be created to ensure that there are never more than three hops between any two domain controllers
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Replication within a site is trigger based; whenever a change is made within a de ned time (5 minutes for Windows 2000, reduced to 15 seconds for Windows 2003 mode forests), the domain controller with a change noti es its replication partners, and they pull the change No compression is used when sending the data The CPU time required to perform the compress/decompress is more expensive in terms of resources than the additional network use The network might not be as fast and reliable between sites, so the number of connections and replication traf c are minimized To achieve this, instead of a ring, a least cost spanning tree is used, which ensures that
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