Active Directory Domain Services Introduction in Visual Studio .NET

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10 Active Directory Domain Services Introduction
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FIGURE 10-1 All computers in a workgroup have their own local accounts database,
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which requires manual updating of each account s database synchronized with the workgroup peer machines
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The Microsoft LAN Manager product offered the concept of a domain, which remained when LAN Manager was relabeled and packaged as Windows NT Advanced Server version 31 This domain concept has remained unchanged since then However, its implementation changed radically from Windows NT 40 to Windows 2000 with the introduction of AD Think of a domain as a group of computers con gured to use a centralized account database for authentication and authorization That is different from a workgroup where every machine had its own accounts database, although it s important to remember that each computer always has its own local SAM database even if it s a member of a domain (unless the machine is a domain controller) It just doesn t use the SAM to authenticate The server holding the domain database is as the primary domain controller (PDC) If a computer is a member of a domain, when the user logs on, he authenticates against a domain controller When resource access is attempted, domain credentials are used instead of entries in the local database (see Figure 10-2) Up to and including Windows NT 40, the SAM was used for the domain database, but was replaced with Windows 2000 and AD Within the SAM database, each user has one account that can be used to log on to any machine that is part of that domain There is no need to maintain multiple accounts on each machine Therefore, this approach implements a centralized security model Because all machines share a centralized account database, a user can log on to any machine that is a member of the domain (assuming that the user has permission), and any machine in the domain can easily grant any user from the domain access to resources thanks to the single, shared security database
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Workgroups Versus Domains
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10 ACTIVE DIRECTORY DOMAIN SERVICES INTRODUCTION
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FIGURE 10-2 In a domain environment, the user accounts are de ned and maintained in
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the domain database, removing the management redundancy associated with maintaining every account on each machine in the workgroup
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The idea of a centralized security database sounds great, but it also introduces a single point of failure Microsoft reduced this risk by creating the role of backup domain controller (BDC), one or more machines that hold a read-only copy of the database, which replicates from the PDC If the PDC becomes unavailable, the read-only copy of the database can be promoted to a writeable copy by making the hosting BDC the new PDC You can have only one PDC in a domain, so if the original PDC comes back online, it sees that a PDC already exists and stops its netlogon service, which is responsible for service logon and authentication requests This single writeable copy of the database is known as a single master model The Local Security Authority (LSA) database, which contains the secrets used for domain controller computer account passwords, account policy settings, and trust relationships, is also replicated However, the LSA is replicated with the SAM and does not require further consideration The BDCs provide fault tolerance and load balancing: Clients can authenticate against a BDC because no changes need to be made to the database to authenticate, although changes are always sent to the PDC for action and commitment to the security database It is common to place at least one BDC in the same location as the PDC, and additional BDCs at each physical location to provide localized authentication services and to stop remote clients from having to send all authentication requests over potentially slow WAN links (see Figure 10-3)
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