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The words authorization and authentication are often used interchangeably, but that is not correct Authentication is proving you are who you say you are Commonly this is accomplished by something you know (such as a password), something you have (such as a USB token), or something you are (biometric tests such as ngerprints) You might hear of two-factor authentication that requires two types of authentication: for example, a USB token that also requires a pass code to be entered Authorization indicates what an authenticated person can do, which includes accessing certain data from a le server, printing to a certain printer, or manipulating objects in a directory service
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Windows facilitates both authorization and authentication via Active Directory, which is used as the central account repository (and much more) Information is stored in a highly secure form and authentication from a client to the directory is encrypted along with authorization handled by Kerberos You explore this topic fully in 10 The actual Active Directory is stored on one or more domain controllers (In reality this is two or more for fault tolerance purposes) Through a process called multimaster replication, changes are made at any domain controller from a client These changes propagate in the most bandwidth ef cient manner to all domain controllers, even those in different physical locations There have always been concerns over the physical security of domain controllers Obviously they hold the database for every account and password that although encrypted can be deciphered given enough time So, the general rule is that a location can have a local domain controller only if physical security can be guaranteed Why is a local domain controller even desired Consider a location that has a number of local le servers application servers For a user sitting next to the server to access any resources, he must authenticate and receive authorization to access them, a process requiring communication with a domain controller The domain controller can sit in a remote location, and the authentication and authorization requests can be sent over a WAN link, which might use bandwidth and take a little time, but that s no big problem But imagine that a WAN link is unavailable The client has no way to get the tickets needed to talk to the servers, and even though he can see the server, he can t get to the data With a local domain controller, WAN link failures do not affect the access to local resources You don t want to jeopardize a company s security, so with Windows Server 2008, a new RODC has been introduced that stores certain aspects of Active Directory but can be con gured with what level of data to store, even down to storing passwords for some users but not others to avoid risking the security of the entire organization
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1 WINDOWS 101: ITS ORIGINS, PRESENT, AND THE
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Another big drive for the Windows platform is the actual deployment of the OS itself Previously, different technologies were used for server deployment and client deployment Windows 2003 Enterprise edition included the Automated Deployment Services (ADS) imaging technology, which was designed for server deployments and included many features needed for server hardware deployment
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An example of server-speci c functionality provided by ADS is the capability to capture oppy disk content to an image and then remotely send it to a server this is useful for performing initial BIOS updates and hardware RAID con gurations that are vital for server con gurations For clients, Remote Installation Services (RIS) has long been the Microsoft solution that could send the installation les from the media to a machine over the network and perform an installation Although ADS was a good solution for servers, RIS had a poor reputation due to its slow installation speed and the fact it used installation les With Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, the installation media contains an image of the OS The i386 folder is gone, so new deployment solutions are needed to work with this new format This Windows Imaging (WIM) format was rst used as part of the OS deployment feature pack for Systems Management Server (SMS) But it was based on a 9 version of the image format and not initially compatible with Vista (although an update was released at the launch of Vista to make operating system deployment [OSD] Vista WIM-format compatible), but Windows Vista brought the format into the mainstream In essence, Windows Vista contains a prebuilt copy of a Vista machine that it lays down on your hard drive, performs some hardware-speci c detection, and the machine is ready to be used Windows Server 2008 contains WDS, which deploys the WIM le of the OS over the network along with other components used to tailor the contents of the image format and prepare XML les to answer questions normally asked during installation and for more advanced granular con guration The basic process of an OS deployment via Windows Deployment Services consists of the following: 1 The client boots over the network using PXE Boot 2 The WDS server responds and sends a Windows PE environment that contains the WDS client, which allows the downloading and application of WIM les along with performing any tasks outlined in the XML con guration les 3 After the WIM le extracts to disk, further actions are performed from within the Windows PE 4 The client computer reboots into the deployed OS and performs machine-speci c hardware detection and con guration along with other customizations 5 The computer boots normally and applies any Group Policy settings applicable to the computer account and, on user logon, any user-speci c Group Policy options
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