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In 6, TCP/IP, you looked at TCP/IP, which handles the communication of data across the network You probably have no desire to manually con gure every computer in the network with IP addresses, and having to communicate with systems by IP address doesn t work well Fortunately, services for IP can simplify your life
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You saw in the previous chapter that static IP addresses could be set for a network adapter along with subnet masks and gateway and domain name system (DNS) servers Many more options can be con gured for IP In any environment with more than a couple of machines, a way to automatically con gure IP properties is necessary The Dynamic Host Con guration Protocol (DHCP) is responsible for allocating IP addresses to machines on the network Not every machine should have a dynamically allocated IP address, however Any server that is accessed consistently by clients and that would be hampered if its IP address changed should have a static IP address Some examples include
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After DHCP is running on a network, con gure clients to obtain IP addresses via DHCP and they automatically request an IP address upon
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startup The address is assigned from a group of IP addresses known as a scope 6 shows how to enable static IP addresses So how does this work; do we tell the client a DHCP server to ask for an address This would not be very portable if computers move between networks and would still require manual con guration The way DHCP works is when the client starts it sends out a broadcast on the network requesting an IP address from someone, this is the same as the old BOOTP protocol that was used in the old days but is expanded in size to allow properties beyond just IP address; for example, DNS server and domain name can be con gured using DHCP In most environments, when a client computer requests an IP address, routers do not forward these broadcasts beyond the local subnet Thus, the router requires con guration to forward the DHCP requests to speci ed servers, or place DHCP servers on each subnets or use DHCP relay agents that communicate with central DHCP servers on behalf of the clients located on other subnets Four packets are used in a DHCP communication Figure 7-1 shows the process
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FIGURE 7-1 The four-packet structure of the DHCP process It is important to note that the communication is not between the two computers shown but rather broadcast over the entire subnet If you look at a trace, you see the source address is 0000 and the destination is 255255255255, as shown in Figure 7-2 The IP address given to the clients is not permanent and is for a speci ed period of time, thus the term lease The actual amount of time can be con gured, but do not make the lease term too short or continual lease renewal will increase network traf c If the lease is too long, clients might be removed from the system but their IP addresses are not freed up and the DHCP server might run out of available addresses During con guration, you are asked if the addresses are for a wired or wireless lease and the lease time is adjusted accordingly (six days for wired, eight hours for wireless) You can override this DHCP clients attempt to renew their lease at 50% of the lease duration If this is successful, a client could keep the same
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IP address for its entire lifetime The renewal process is a basic DHCP request from the client directly to the DHCP server that leased the address originally and then an acknowledgement (ACK) from the DHCP server that con rms the options that relate to the address
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