A Note on White Space in Java

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A Note on White Space
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All XML instances presented here are formatted for readability, so that white space (carriage returns, tabs, or spaces) appears between tags In XML, white space is meaningful, which can be tricky What this means is that if you have a space between the end of one tag and the start of another, an XML parser will view that space as a meaningful part of your document If you want to be able to have white space in your document, you need to account for it in the content model of your elements I think it's better to ensure that your XML instances don't contain any white space between tags, except where it is meaningful to the document itself Depending on what authoring environment your user population employs, white space may be taken care of for you In the systems I've built, special routines have always been needed for dealing with white space, or the lack thereof, in XML instances on their way in and out of the system Your XML editing environment should take care of presenting the XML instances in a friendly way (not all on one line), so you really shouldn't need to have extra white space characters in the instances themselves
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The Head
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We've defined the head of our XML instance as containing recordlike information Looking back at our requirements for CyberCinema, we see that the following recordlike pieces of information are associated with each review:
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Author Headline Summary or abstract of the review Date the review was "published" (that is, the date the review was released, not necessarily the date it was created or last modified, so you may also want to track the create date and the last modified date)
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Movie being reviewed
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Dates
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Throughout this book, when I refer to dates or timestamps, I'm talking about "date and time," as in an exact measurement of the date and time We'll get into how exact later (see the sidebar A Brief History of Time later in this chapter) Remember, information about actors and directors and about the graphics embedded in reviews belongs in the body not in the head of the review The body is perfectly capable of storing structured information; it isn't an unstructured blob that is included for display purposes only Singular Versus Plural: Putting Together Blocks One important question to ask yourself about each piece of information you put in the head of the instance is: Is it plural or singular We've stated that reviews can have more than one author, so author information is plural A review shouldn't have multiple headlines or abstracts, so the headline and abstract are singular An article can't be created twice or published for the first time twice, so these events are singular They happen only once, so the date stamps for them are also singular Although an article can be modified more than once, in this example we're tracking only the time the article was last modified Organizing plural elements within blocks is a convenient way to group them together and set them apart from the other elements within the head, like organizing files in file folders Let's continue with our example of movie reviews The head consists of a single "author block," which contains all author information, and then a set of singular items: REVIEWED, HEADLINE, ABSTRACT, CREATE_DATE, LASTMOD_DATE, and PUBLISH_DATE By using a single author block to
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store all of the author information, you also make it easier to extract this information from the XML later on because extracting it requires only one operation: finding and retrieving the author block The alternative would be to find and retrieve each author entry separately The head of our document is starting to take shape Building on the skeleton we constructed previously, we have a good idea of what the head looks like:
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< xml version="10"> <CYBERCINEMA_REVIEW ID="123"> <HEAD> <!-- Header information goes here --> <AUTHOR_BLOCK> <AUTHOR ID="123">Daniel Appelquist</AUTHOR> </AUTHOR_BLOCK> <REVIEWED ID="3827">Gone With the Wind</REVIEWED> <HEADLINE>Classic Film Still Fresh</HEADLINE> <ABSTRACT>This film is often thought of as the best example of classic</ABSTRACT> <CREATE_DATE DATE="2000-05-17T17:10:00,0"/> <LASTMOD_DATE DATE="2000-05-17T18:12:00,0"/> <PUBLISH_DATE DATE="2000-05-17T19:27:00,0"/> </HEAD> <BODY> <!-- Body information goes here --> </BODY> </CYBERCINEMA_REVIEW>
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You'll notice that the date stamp elements in the HEAD element look a little funny heir tags end with a forward slash, as in <PUBLISH_DATE DATE=""/> This forward slash at the end of a tag is the notation for an empty element It is one of the main differences between XML and the markup languages that have come before it (such as HTML) It's a shorthand way of using an opening tag <PUBLISH_DATE DATE=""> and a closing tag</PUBLISH_DATE> next to each other In fact, these two bits of code (the single XML date tag that ends with the forward slash and the pair of opening and closing tags) are functionally identical; <PUBLISH_DATE
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