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5 Add whatever you need to the JPanel 6 Add the JPanel to the JFrame Content Pane 7 Pack and show the JFrame
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Figure 5-3 The Practical structure of JFrame In this example, note that the content pane has been set to a JPanel, which can be used as a general purpose window to hold buttons, drawing canvases, split panes - anything the program needs to display Thus, to implement a tool bar, the JPanel can use a Border layout to hold a JToolBar at its top, and yet another drawing pane or panel in its center The key to this whole idea is that the JPanel can serve to build practically any interface needed Swing has several kinds of panes (eg, JPanel, JSplitPane, JTabbedPane) that can serve to hold other Swing components Associated with each such pane is a layout manager Layout managers control how other Swing components are placed in a pane Some layout managers are relatively simple to understand, but others get quite complicated But the difficulty is in the details of using a specific layout manager The concept that each pane has a layout manager is simple Once you have this basic object structure down, it is "simply" a matter of selecting which Swing components you need to implement your interface The basic components, such as JButton, are quite easy to use Others, such as JTable are harder And if you need to draw something on a drawing canvas, you will need to use the Java Graphics object How to use Graphics is beyond the scope of this book other than to note that your program will be responsible for responding to paint events caused by the drawing pane being resized or exposed
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Defining the GUI and laying out the Swing components is not all that difficult But it is only half the story For each component that the user can interact with, your program must provide code that makes an appropriate response These are the events, and the next section, "Handling Swing Command Events" shows how to handle events generated by Swing components It is important to remember that one of the hardest parts about using Swing is figuring out which features of a component are most useful and commonly needed, and which are included to give Swing the capability of defining interfaces for every possible situation Sun's documentation for Java (and the rest of the core Java classes) is consistent and complete It is really much better than average But it covers everything The Sun Swing Tutorial is more useful It has many good examples which tend to demonstrate the most useful features of the various components Once you get an idea of what you want to do with a component, the Swing documentation provided by Sun is about the best there is available Handling Swing Command Events The components of Java Swing generate events in response to various actions For example, when a user clicks on a button or selects a menu item, Swing will generate an ActionEvent The program handles these events by registering an appropriate Listener for each event There are really several kinds of events generated by Swing - ActionEvents, ChangeEvents, ItemEvents, and others Each kind of event is appropriate for some kind of action in a specific component These can be caused by a user click, a list changing its values, a timer going off, and different things depending on the nature of the component All these events can be handled in the same general way The general steps are: 1 Create a component (such as a JButton) 2 Add it to an appropriate place in the GUI (such as a JPanel) 3 Register a Listener that gets notified when the component generates an event (such as an ActionListener for a user click) 4 Define the callback method that is invoked when the Listener is notified (such as actionPerformed for an ActionListener) As with most programming tasks, these steps can be accomplished in many ways using Java However, two main ways that have evolved as Java idioms to do this One is to define a single listener, and determine which component generated the event using a series of if statements The second method is to use inner classes to respond to events for each Swing component individually And, there are really two variants of using inner classes The first is to use anonymous inner classes, and the other is to define named inner classes
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