Move Attributes and Operations as High as Possible in Java

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Move Attributes and Operations as High as Possible
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You should move attributes and operations as high as possible in the hierarchy If you find two subclasses defining similar attributes or operations that aren't in the superclass, they may be better used if
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they are moved up to the superclass
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Don't Move Attributes and Operations Too High
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Subclasses must take advantage of superclass If most of the subclasses don't use operations defined in a superclass, or most are overriding the superclass definition, then the operation may not belong in the superclass
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Find Superclasses
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If you have independent classes that have several similar attributes or operations, it is possible that those shared operations could be moved to a new common superclass But be sure the new class has something to do General Guidelines
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The Name Matters
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Choosing good names for classes, attributes, methods, and variables is critical for writing good software The names should be meaningful, and help explain the role of the item Avoid abbreviations A good descriptive name will reduce the need for explanatory comments It may take a bit more effort to type a long name, but the savings in reduced commenting and ease of reading later will more than make up for a little one-time typing effort Of course, a name that takes most of the line will hinder readability
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One Thing at a Time
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The operations of a class should accomplish a single well-defined task Don't combine a getter operation with one that changes the state of the object Avoid side effects
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Don't Reinvent the Wheel
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Avoid solving problems that have already been solved Reuse existing code whenever possible Use existing libraries and frameworks whenever possible Learn about design patterns, and use them when appropriate
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You Won't Get it Right the First Time
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No matter how good of a designer you are, you will not get the design just right the first time3 Recognize that there will be problems in the design, and fix them as soon as possible Fixing problems will ultimately result in a better software system that is easier to modify and maintain Learn about and use refactoring
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Simplicity
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Make your design as simple as possible On one level, this means don't try to adopt a fancy solution because you think it will work better - sometime a simple linear search will work as well as a fancier, but harder to code, binary search On a different level, simplicity doesn't mean using the first thing that you can think of Finding a simple, elegant design can require significant effort, but will pay off in the long run
Your Software Won't Go Away
A software system is often used far beyond its expected lifetime All software systems should be designed as if they will be used forever This means designing for the long term A well-designed system will be easier to maintain over time than one that takes shortcuts or makes assumptions about limited lifetime Remember Y2K
The Build and Release Phases
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At some point in the development process, the planning process will lead to the building process This crossover point will vary depending on the size of the project, and the methodology being used And of course, the ultimate goal of any software project will be to release a running system to the customer Building the Software For most programmers, writing code is what it is all about Many would just as soon forget all the planning stuff, and write code But experience shows that planning will lead to a better product And a good design must be accompanied by good programming practices The build phase really consists of three major activities: writing code, testing the pieces of code being worked on (sometime called unit testing), and then debugging the code This whole process can be greatly enhanced by choosing the right programming environment, and using the right tools Code Reviews and Ownership One commonly followed programming practice that is valuable for any project is the code review In a code review, a group of programmers will go over a piece of code line by line Usually the author of the code is part of the review to help explain what the code does
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