Introduction and Terminology in Java

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Introduction and Terminology
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Pin names and descriptions are identical to those shown in Table 31
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Null modem
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TINI/E10
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NULL
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The null modem shown in Figure 33 is in a brick form factor Null modems are also available as cables This would obviate the need for both a null modem and a straight-through cable Since straight-through cables are more common and typically used with TINI anyway for loading the runtime environment, we have chosen to use a separate null modem brick If the development host has a DB-25 pin connector, you will need a DB-9 to DB-25 adapter as well Depending on whether your development host is pin-male or pin-female you may also need a gender changer With the hardware con guration shown in Figure 33 (or equivalent) and BlackBox running on the development host, we re ready to begin writing and testing serial applications
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Serial Communication
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THE JAVA COMMUNICATIONS API
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The Java Communications API (or comm API for brevity) has been de ned by Sun Microsystems as an extension to the Java platform The API is de ned and partially implemented in the javaxcomm package The platform speci c portion of the comm API implementation exists in the comdalsemicomm package For most applications there isn t a compelling reason to use the serial port classes in comdalsemicomm directly, so this section will focus entirely on the public speci cation in javaxcomm Unless explicitly stated otherwise, all classes described in the next section are de ned in the javaxcomm package You may recall that when you installed the comm API on your host development machine, you copied a le named javaxcommproperties to the jre/lib/ ext directory under the root of your JRE or JDK installation This text le contains a line that speci es a driver to be loaded to manage serial port communication On TINI the serial port drivers are always installed and available in the runtime environment and therefore the javaxcommproperties le is not required or supported
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Ultimately we ll be working with SerialPort objects SerialPort is a subclass of the abstract class CommPort CommPort provides a fairly generic abstraction of a communications port It provides methods for con guring port settings and acquiring streams for reading data from and writing data to the underlying physical port CommPort objects can t be created directly using the new operator Rather, they are created by invoking the open method on a CommPortIdentifier object The CommPortIdentifier class manages access to the ports exposed by the platform s physical port drivers It also provides a mechanism for notifying applications when port ownership status changes This can be useful when multiple applications need to share a single port The ability to share ports among multiple processes on TINI is supported, but it isn t typically important and is therefore not covered here CommPortIdentifier objects can be created by invoking one of the following getPortIdentifier methods
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public static CommPortIdentifier getPortIdentifier(String portName) throws NoSuchPortException public static CommPortIdentifier getPortIdentifier(CommPort port) throws NoSuchPortException
An enumeration of CommPortIdentifiers for all communication2 ports supported by the system can be obtained by invoking the getPortIdentifiers method
2 On TINI this speci cally means all serial ports
The Java Communications API
public static Enumeration getPortIdentifiers()
PortLister
CommPort
example, shown in Listing 31, gets an enumeration of all objects on the system and displays their names PortLister
Listing 31
import javautilEnumeration; import javaxcommCommPortIdentifier; class PortLister { public static void main(String[] args) { Enumeration ports = CommPortIdentifiergetPortIdentifiers(); while (portshasMoreElements()) { Systemoutprintln( ((CommPortIdentifier)(portsnextElement()))getName()); } } }
When this application is run on a Win32 machine with the communications API properly installed, it will list both parallel and serial ports On a system with two serial ports and two parallel ports, it will generate output similar to the following:
COM1 COM2 LPT1 LPT2
On TINI, however, there are no parallel ports at least not the IEEE-1284 type parallel ports that are comprehended by the comm API In fact, there is no implementation for the parallel classes de ned by the comm API TINI does support parallel I/O, but in a far more exible and powerful fashion by exposing the processor bus to allow for arbitrary I/O expansion From a programmer s perspective, parallel I/O on TINI-based systems is accomplished using the comdalsemisystemDataPort class and is covered in 8 The output of PortLister when executed on TINI shows that four serial ports are supported by the system They are named serial0 through serial3