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buildertoXml();
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And that does it for this refactoring! TagNode is now fully encapsulated byTagBuilder
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Improving a Builder
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I could not resist telling you about a performance improvement made to the TagBuilder because it reveals the elegance and simplicity of the Builder pattern Some of my colleagues at a company called Evant had done some profiling of our system, and they'd found that a StringBuffer used by the TagBuilder's encapsulated TagNode was causing performance problems ThisStringBuffer is used as a Collecting Parameter it is created and then passed to every node in a composite of TagNode objects in order to produce the results returned from calling TagNode's toXml() method To see how this works, see the example inMove Accumulation to Collecting Parameter (313) The StringBuffer that was being used in this operation was not instantiated with any particular size, which meant that as more and more XML was added to the StringBuffer, it needed to automatically grow when it could no longer hold all its data That's fine; the StringBuffer class is designed to automatically grow when needed But there's a performance penalty because StringBuffer must work to transparently increase its size and shift data around That performance penalty was not acceptable on the Evant system The solution lay in knowing the exact size the StringBuffer needs to be before instantiating it How could we compute the appropriate size Easy As each node, attribute, or value is added to the TagBuilder, it can increment a buffer size based on the size of what is being added The final computed buffer size can then be used to instantiate a StringBuffer that never needs to grow in size To implement this performance improvement, we started as usual by writing a failing test The following test builds an XML tree by making calls to a TagBuilder, then obtains the size of the resulting XML string returned by the builder, and finally compares the size of that string with the computed buffer size: public class TagBuilderTest public void testToStringBufferSize() { String expected = "<requirements>" + "<requirement type='software'>" + "IDE" + "</requirement>" + "</requirements>"; TagBuilder builder = new TagBuilder("requirements"); builderaddChild("requirement"); builderaddAttribute("type", "software"); builderaddValue("IDE"); int stringSize = buildertoXml()length(); int computedSize = builderbufferSize(); assertEquals("buffer size", stringSize, computedSize); }
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To pass this test and others like it, we altered TagBuilder as follows: public class TagBuilder
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private int outputBufferSize; private static int TAG_CHARS_SIZE = 5; private static int ATTRIBUTE_CHARS_SIZE = 4;
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public TagBuilder(String rootTagName) {
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incrementBufferSizeByTagLength(rootTagName);
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private void addTo(TagNode parentNode, String tagName) {
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incrementBufferSizeByTagLength(tagName);
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} public void addAttribute(String name, String value) {
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incrementBufferSizeByAttributeLength(name, value);
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} public void addValue(String value) {
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incrementBufferSizeByValueLength(value);
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public int bufferSize() { return outputBufferSize; }
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private void incrementBufferSizeByAttributeLength(String name, String value) { outputBufferSize += (namelength() + valuelength() + ATTRIBUTE_CHARS_SIZE); }
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private void incrementBufferSizeByTagLength(String tag) { int sizeOfOpenAndCloseTags = taglength() * 2; outputBufferSize += (sizeOfOpenAndCloseTags + TAG_CHARS_SIZE); }
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private void incrementBufferSizeByValueLength(String value) { outputBufferSize += valuelength(); }
These changes to TagBuilder are transparent to users ofTagBuilder because it encapsulates the new performance logic The only additional change needed to be made to TagBuilder's toXml() method, so that it could instantiate aStringBuffer of the correct size and pass it to the root TagNode, which accumulates the XML contents To make that happen, we changed the toXml() method from public class TagBuilder public String toXml() {
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return rootNodetoString(); }
to public class TagBuilder public String toXml() {
StringBuffer xmlResult = new StringBuffer(outputBufferSize); rootNodeappendContentsTo(xmlResult); return xmlResulttoString();
That was it The test passed, and TagBuilder ran significantly faster
Variations
A Schema-Based Builder
TagBuilder contains three methods for adding nodes to a Composite: addChild(String childTagName) addSibling(String siblingTagName) addToParent(String parentTagName, String childTagName)
Each of these methods is involved in creating and positioning new tag nodes within an encapsulated Composite I wondered if I could write a Builder that would use only a single method, called add(String tagName) To do that, the Builder would need to know where to position tags added by clients I decided to experiment with this idea I called the result a SchemaBasedTreeBuilder Here's a test that shows how it works: public class SchemaBasedTagBuilderTest public void testTwoSetsOfGreatGrandchildren() { TreeSchema schema = new TreeSchema( "orders" + " order" + " item" + " apple" + " orange" ); String expected = "<orders>" + "<order>" + "<item>" +
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"<apple/>" + "<orange/>" + "</item>" + "<item>" + "<apple/>" + "<orange/>" + "</item>" + "</order>" + "</orders>"; SchemaBasedTagBuilder builder = new SchemaBasedTagBuilder(schema); builderadd("orders"); builderadd("order"); for (int i=0; i<2; i++) { builderadd("item"); builderadd("apple"); builderadd("orange"); } assertXmlEquals(expected, buildertoString()); }
The SchemaBasedTreeBuilder learns where it needs to position tags by means of aTReeSchema instance treeSchema is a class that accepts a tab-delimited string, which defines a tree of tag names: "orders" + " order" + " item" + " apple" + " orange"
treeSchema takes this string and converts it into the following Map: