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The second element inside the layout header is a list of navigation links, made using the unordered list tag ul, together with the list item tag li:
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<nav class="round"> <ul> <li><%= link_to "Home", '#' %></li> <li><%= link_to "Help", '#' %></li> <li><%= link_to "Sign in", '#' %></li> </ul> </nav>
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This list uses the Rails helper link_to to create links (which we created directly with the anchor tag a in Section 332); the first argument is the link text, while the second is the URL We ll fill in the URLs with named routes in Section 523, but for now we use the stub URL # commonly used in web design Once Rails has processed this layout and evaluated the Embedded Ruby, the list looks like this:
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<nav class="round"> <ul> <li><a href="#">Home</a></li> <li><a href="#">Help</a></li> <li><a href="#">Sign in</a></li> </ul> </nav>
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Our layout is now complete, and we can look at the results by visiting, eg, the Home page In anticipation of adding users to our site in 8, let s add a signup link to the homehtmlerb view (Listing 52)
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Listing 52 The Home page with a link to the signup page
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app/views/pages/homehtmlerb
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<h1>Sample App</h1> <p> This is the home page for the <a href="http://railstutorialorg/">Ruby on Rails Tutorial</a> sample application </p> <%= link_to "Sign up now!", '#', :class => "signup_button round" %>
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5: Filling in the Layout
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As with the previous uses of link_to, this just creates a stub link of the form
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<a href="#" class="signup_button round">Sign up now!</a>
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Note again the recurring theme of options hashes, in this case used to add a couple CSS classes to the anchor tag You might notice that the a tag here has two classes, separated by a space:
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<a href="#" class="signup_button round">
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This is convenient for the common case of an element with two different kinds of styles Now we re finally ready to see the fruits of our labors (Figure 52)5 Pretty underwhelming, you say Perhaps so Happily, though, we ve done a good job of giving our HTML elements sensible classes and ids, which puts us in a great position to add style to the site with CSS Before we move on to CSS styling, let s replace the logo alt text with a logo image; you can download the sample application logo at http://railstutorialorg/images/sample_app/logopng Put the logo in public/images so that Rails can find it The result appears in Figure 53
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512 Custom CSS
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In Section 511, you may have noticed that the CSS elements are semantic, that is, they have meaning in English beyond the structure of the page For example, instead of writing that the navigation menu was right-top we used the element nav This gives us considerable flexibility in constructing a layout based on CSS Let s get started by filling in the customcss file with Listing 53 (There are quite a few rules in Listing 53 To get a sense of what a CSS rule does, it s often helpful to comment it out using CSS comments, ie, by putting it inside /* */, and seeing what changes)
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5 Note that Safari and Chrome users will see an indicator of a broken image in place of the Sample App alt text
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The Home page (/pages/home) with a logo image but no custom CSS
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Listing 53 CSS for the container, body, and links
public/stylesheets/customcss
container { width: 710px; } body { background: #cff; } header { padding-top: 20px; } header img { padding: 1em; background: #fff; }
section { margin-top: 1em; font-size: 120%; padding: 20px; background: #fff; } section h1 { font-size: 200%; } /* Links */ a { color: #09c; text-decoration: none; } a:hover { color: #069; text-decoration: underline; } a:visited { color: #069; }
5: Filling in the Layout
You can see the results of this CSS in Figure 54 There s a lot of CSS here, but it has a consistent form Each rule refers either to a class, an id, an HTML tag, or some combination thereof, followed by a list of styling commands For example,
body { background: #cff; }