Defining a title helper in Java

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Listing 42 Defining a title helper
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app/helpers/application_helperrb
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module ApplicationHelper # Return a title on a per-page basis def title base_title = "Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App" if @titlenil base_title else "#{base_title} | #{@title}" end end end
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This may look fairly simple to the eyes of an experienced Rails developer, but it s full of new Ruby ideas: modules, comments, local variable assignment, booleans, control flow, string interpolation, and return values We ll cover each of these ideas in this chapter Now that we have a helper, we can use it to simplify our layout by replacing
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<title>Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App | <%= @title %></title>
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<title><%= title %></title>
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1 If a helper is specific to a particular controller, you should put it in the corresponding helper file; for example, helpers for the Pages controller generally go in app/helpers/pages_helperrb In our case, we expect the title helper to be used on all the site s pages, and Rails has a special helper file for this case: app/helpers/application_helperrb
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4: Rails-Flavored Ruby
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as seen in Listing 43 Note in particular the switch from the instance variable @title to the helper method title (without the @ sign) Using Autotest or rspec spec/, you should verify that the tests from 3 still pass
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Listing 43 The sample application site layout
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app/views/layouts/applicationhtmlerb
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<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title><%= title %></title> <%= csrf_meta_tag %> </head> <body> <%= yield %> </body> </html>
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412 Cascading Style Sheets
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There s a second addition to our site that seems simple but adds several new Ruby concepts: including style sheets into our site layout Though this is a book in web development, not web design, we ll be using cascading style sheets (CSS) to give the sample application some minimal styling, and we ll use the Blueprint CSS framework as a foundation for that styling To get started, download the latest Blueprint CSS (For simplicity, I ll assume you download Blueprint to a Downloads directory, but use whichever directory is most convenient) Using either the command line or a graphical tool, copy the Blueprint CSS directory blueprint into the public/stylesheets directory, a special directory where Rails keeps stylesheets On my Mac, the commands looked like this, but your details may differ:
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$ cp -r /Downloads/joshuaclayton-blueprint-css-<version number>/blueprint \ > public/stylesheets/
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Here cp is the Unix copy command, and the -r flag copies recursively (needed for copying directories) (As mentioned briefly in Section 49, the tilde ~ means home directory in Unix) Note: You should not paste in the > character to your terminal If you paste in the first line with a backslash and hit return, you will see >, indicating a line
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continuation You should then paste in the second line and hit return again to execute the command Also note that you ll have to fill in the version number by hand, since that changes as Blueprint gets updated Finally, be sure that you don t type
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$ cp -r /Downloads/joshuaclayton-blueprint-css-<version number>/blueprint/ \ > public/stylesheets/
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which has a trailing slash in /blueprint/ This puts the contents of the Blueprint directory into public/stylesheets instead of moving the whole directory Once you have the stylesheets in the proper directory, Rails provides a helper for including them on our pages using Embedded Ruby (Listing 44)
Listing 44 Adding stylesheets to the sample application layout
app/views/layouts/applicationhtmlerb
<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title><%= title %></title> <%= csrf_meta_tag %> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'blueprint/screen', :media => 'screen' %> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'blueprint/print', :media => 'print' %> </head> <body> <%= yield %> </body> </html>
Let s focus on the new lines:
<%= stylesheet_link_tag 'blueprint/screen', :media => 'screen' %> <%= stylesheet_link_tag 'blueprint/print', :media => 'print' %>
These use the built-in Rails helper stylesheet_link_tag, which you can read more about at the Rails API2 The first stylesheet_link_tag line includes the stylesheet
2 I don t provide links to the API because they have a tendency to go out of date quickly Let Google be your guide Incidentally, API stands for application programming interface