3: Mostly Static Pages in Java

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3: Mostly Static Pages
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in this context;24 what matters is that using this layout ensures that visiting the page /pages/home converts the contents of homehtmlerb to HTML and then inserts it in place of <%= yield %> Now that we have a site-wide layout, we ve also taken this opportunity to add a security feature to each page Listing 328 adds the code
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<%= csrf_meta_tag %>
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which uses the Rails method csrf_meta_tag to prevent cross-site request forgery (CSRF), a type of malicious web attack Don t worry about the details (I don t); just know that Rails is working hard to keep your application secure Of course, the views in Listing 325, Listing 326, and Listing 327 are still filled with all the HTML structure we just hoisted into the layout, so we have to rip it out, leaving only the interior contents The resulting cleaned-up views appear in Listing 329, Listing 330, and Listing 331
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Listing 329 The Home view with HTML structure removed
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app/views/pages/homehtmlerb
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<h1>Sample App</h1> <p> This is the home page for the <a href="http://railstutorialorg/">Ruby on Rails Tutorial</a> sample application </p>
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Listing 330 The Contact view with HTML structure removed
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app/views/pages/contacthtmlerb
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<h1>Contact</h1> <p> Contact Ruby on Rails Tutorial about the sample app at the <a href="http://railstutorialorg/feedback">feedback page</a> </p>
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24 If you ve studied Ruby before, you might suspect that Rails is yielding the contents to a block, and your suspicion would be correct But, as far as developing web applications with Rails, it doesn t matter, and I ve honestly never given the meaning of <%= yield %> a second thought or even a first one
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Conclusion
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Listing 331 The About view with HTML structure removed
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app/views/pages/abouthtmlerb
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<h1>About Us</h1> <p> <a href="http://railstutorialorg/">Ruby on Rails Tutorial</a> is a project to make a book and screencasts to teach web development with <a href="http://rubyonrailsorg/">Ruby on Rails</a> This is the sample application for the tutorial </p>
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With these views defined, the Home, Contact, and About pages are exactly the same as before ie, we have successfully refactored them but they have much less duplication And, as required, the tests still pass
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34 Conclusion
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Seen from the outside, this chapter hardly accomplished anything: we started with static pages, and ended with mostly static pages But appearances are deceiving: by developing in terms of Rails controllers, actions, and views, we are now in a position to add arbitrary amounts of dynamic content to our site Seeing exactly how this plays out is the task for the rest of this tutorial Before moving on, let s take a minute to commit our changes and merge them into the master branch Back in Section 312 we created a Git branch for the development of static pages If you haven t been making commits as we ve been moving along, first make a commit indicating that we ve reached a stopping point:
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$ git add $ git commit -am "Done with static pages"
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Then merge the changes back into the master branch using the same technique as in Section 135:
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$ git checkout master $ git merge static-pages
Once you reach a stopping point like this, it s usually a good idea to push your code up to a remote repository (which, if you followed the steps in Section 134, will be GitHub):
3: Mostly Static Pages
$ rspec spec/ $ git push
If you like, at this point you can even deploy the updated application to Heroku:
$ rspec spec/ $ git push heroku
Note that in both cases I ve run rspec spec/, just to be sure that all the tests still pass Running your tests before pushing or deploying is a good habit to cultivate
35 Exercises
1 Make a Help page for the sample app First write a test for the existence of a page at the URL /pages/help Then write a second test for the title Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App | Help Get your tests to pass, and then fill in the Help page with the content from Listing 332 2 You may have noticed some repetition in the Pages controller spec (Listing 320) In particular, the base title, Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App , is the same for every title test Using the RSpec before(:each) facility, which executes a block of code before each test case, fill in Listing 333 to define a @base_title instance variable that eliminates this duplication (This code uses two new elements: a symbol, :each, and the string concatenation operator + We ll learn more about both in 4, and we ll see before(:each) again in Section 621) Note that, with the base title captured in an instance variable, we are now able to align :content with the first character inside each left parenthesis ( This is my preferred convention for formatting code broken into multiple lines