A distributed domain is one where the domain is spread across multiple processes in Java

Encoder PDF 417 in Java A distributed domain is one where the domain is spread across multiple processes
A distributed domain is one where the domain is spread across multiple processes
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Types of Domains
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provisioning components to the cluster nodes Figure 97 illustrates an application server-based distributed domain
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Mapping a domain to an application server environment
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As shown in Figure 97, the administration server is responsible for deploying composites to an application server instance If these application server instances are clustered (as seen in the gure), a composite will be deployed to all application servers in the cluster This will enable the application server-based domain to provide service failover and load-balancing In some situations, an application server cluster may be overkill In these cases, a distributed domain could be composed of small pro le servers such as web servers, servlet containers, or OSGi runtimes In this type of lightweight distributed domain, components are deployed to individual servers as opposed to all runtimes in a cluster Although advanced capabilities such as failover and loadbalancing may not be available, these types of distributed domains are generally more straightforward to con gure and maintain
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The Domain
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Distributed Domain Architectures
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In 5, Composition, we described how SCA was designed to enable optimized communications in a domain Because target services are speci ed in a composite, domain infrastructure can attach wires directly to endpoints without having to route through an intermediary message broker or bus There are two basic approaches to implementing this kind of point-to-point communication in a domain We term these decentralized and controller-based architectures, respectively In a decentralized domain, each runtime node maintains a copy of the domain con guration and is responsible for making connections to other nodes Nodes function autonomously, exchanging information about the components they are hosting so that other nodes can connect to them, as shown in Figure 98
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Figure 98 Each node in a decentralized domain maintains a copy of the domain con guration
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An advantage of the decentralized model is that it can be made very resilient There is no single point of failure in the domain because all runtimes operate independently A disadvantage of the decentralized approach is handling change If a component is undeployed or a service address is changed, all runtimes most be noti ed As a domain grows, keeping the information in sync in an ef cient way becomes a challenge
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Types of Domains
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In contrast, controller-based architectures centralize all domain information in an administrative server, called a controller, which is responsible for managing runtime nodes The open source Fabric3 implementation adopts this architecture In this model, the controller instructs each runtime regarding what components to run and how to wire them This architecture is depicted in Figure 99
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Figure 99 In controller-based domains, the controller maintains a central copy of the domain con guration
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The main bene t of the controller model is that each runtime need only know about a speci c set of endpoints This makes handling changes easier and scalable, as a limited number of runtimes are noti ed Another advantage of controller-based architectures is that by centralizing domain management, the controller is potentially able to make intelligent decisions about where to provision components Because it sees the big picture (that is, all components in the domain and how they are wired), a sophisticated controller could decide to provision components to speci c runtimes based on load or other requirements A disadvantage of the controller model is that it introduces a potential single point of failure If the controller does not have a backup, the entire domain may be affected by a crash In the end, there is no right way to implement a domain Each architecture has its bene ts and drawbacks In choosing among SCA implementations, it is necessary to understand the implications of decentralized and controller-based architectures and to select the one that best ts your organization s technical requirements
The Domain
A federated domain is distributed and contains different types of runtimes
Federated Domains Federated domains are the largest-scale domains A federated domain is distributed and contains different types of runtimes For example, it may include Java EE application servers, BPEL servers, servlet containers, and C++ runtimes Federated domains are used when an organization needs to deploy composite applications that make use of many implementation technologies An example of a federated domain is shown in Figure 910