Deploying to a Domain in Java

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Wiring As components are allocated, the domain must connect wires between them When two components are allocated to different runtimes, the domain must establish a communication channel between the two When no protocol is chosen by the user, it is up to the SCA implementation to decide how remote communication should be handled Depending on the implementation, the actual protocol used could be web services (WS-*), RMI, JMS, or a proprietary technology One important factor any implementation must account for when selecting a protocol is the policies associated with the wire If transactions are speci ed on the wire, for example, the protocol must support transaction propagation The domain may also select a communication protocol based on the requirements of the client component and target service For example, when wiring two Java component implementations, the domain may choose RMI as the transport protocol Or if the target were implemented in C++ as opposed to Java, web services may be selected based on interoperability requirements Exposing Bound Services as Endpoints When the domain has allocated a composite to a runtime or set of runtimes, bound services must be made available as endpoints For example, a service bound as a web service must be exposed as a web service endpoint If a service is bound to JMS, the domain will attach the service as a listener to the appropriate message topic or queue (see Figure 114)
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It is also possible to bind a service multiple times to different protocols A service could be exposed as both a web service endpoint and JMS listener The mechanics of how the domain performs the actual endpoint binding are transparent to the developer and deployer
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JMS Topic or Queue
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The SCA runtime binds the service to a JMS listener
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Binding a service as a message endpoint
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Introducing SCA
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Domain Constraints
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Domains are designed to simplify the tasks of establishing remote communications, endpoint setup, and resource sharing that are left to developers and deployers in traditional programming models However, with any technology, there are bene ts and trade-offs SCA is no different Although domains provide a number of bene ts, they also impose certain constraints
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A domain cannot be created from multiple vendor (or open source) SCA runtimes in any standard way
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The fact that domain infrastructure is single-vendor means that there is no interoperable way of constructing cross-implementation domains In other words, a domain cannot be created from multiple vendor (or open source) SCA runtimes in any standard way (of course, vendors could agree to support interoperability in some nonstandard way) This imposes two important practical constraints First, composites cannot be deployed across multiplevendor SCA runtimes The absence of domain interoperability also limits the size of a domain to the component types a particular vendor supports, either natively or through container extensions If an alternative container is required to host a particular component implementation type, it must be deployed to a different domain capable of running it Contrast this lack of domain interoperability to a web services environment where each service is independent and is potentially hosted on entirely different vendor platforms In this respect, SCA is closer to MOM; there is a one common infrastructure environment, as opposed to many autonomous, but interoperable, islands Are the trade-offs between simplicity and common management versus vendor lock-in worth it There is no way to answer that question in general However, individual projects can make an informed decision by understanding when SCA may be used effectively and when other technologies are more appropriate Given the importance of web services, architects and developers will likely be confronted with designing systems using SCA or web services technologies directly
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SCA and Web Services
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Both SCA and web services claim to be technologies for building multilanguage, loosely coupled services in a distributed environment Why not just use web services exclusively to build applications Recalling that SCA domains are built on single-vendor infrastructure, web services offer a key advantage They limit vendor lock-in to individual service deployments, as opposed to wider subsystems To understand how SCA relates to web services, it is useful to divide web service technologies into a set of interoperable communication protocols (the WS-* speci cations) and programming models for using those protocols (for example, in Java, JAX-RPC, and JAX-WS) At the most basic level, web services deal with protocol-level interoperability They de ne how application code communicates with other code in a language-neutral, interoperable manner Web services make it possible for Java code to communicate with C#, PHP, or Ruby code Web services achieve interoperability by specifying how service contracts are de ned (WSDL) and how data is encoded over particular communications transports (for example, SOAP over HTTP, WS-ReliableMessaging, WS-Security, and so on) Web services programming models such as JAX-WS de ne APIs and Java annotations for accessing other web services and making code available as an endpoint These programming models are speci c to web services; their goal is not to provide a communications API that abstracts the underlying transport
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Web services programming models such as JAX-WS de ne APIs and Java annotations for accessing other web services and making code available as an endpoint
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