Validating with XSD in VS .NET

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In addition to acting as a specification for a class of XML documents, an XSD schema can also be used to validate XML documents To do this, you need to use a validation program, which is capable of checking an XML document against a schema and reporting validation errors In general, there are two
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categories of such programs: Parsers and XML/XSD editors When building your application and designing your XML documents and schemas, you typically use a schema editor When your application is running, it might programmatically validate XML documents using a validating parser Figure 2-3 shows how a validating program (parser or editor) validates an XML document using a schema
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Figure 2-2-3 Validating an XML document using a schema
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The validating program must somehow know which schema to use to validate the document There s a standard way for an XML document to point to its schema: There are two attributes depending on whether or not you are using namespaces in the instance document The attributes are called schemaLocation and noNamespaceSchemaLocation Both attributes belong to the XML Schema Instance namespace: http://wwww3org/2001/XMLSchema-instance If the elements or attributes you are validating do not belong to any namespace, you use the noNamespaceSchemaLocation attribute to specify the physical location of the schema document The schemaLocation attribute lets you specify the physical location of a schema to use for validating elements and attributes in a given namespace For example, if the schema for the examples document is located in C:\schemas\examplesxsd you could write: <!-- using schemaLocation to specify the schema --> <example xmlns="http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples" xmlns:xsi=" http://wwww3org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples C:\schemas\examplesxsd"> <elem1>some text</elem1> <elem2>more text</elem2> </example>
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Note that the default namespace (to which all elements in this document belong) is the same as the target namespace used in the schema itself (see previous examples) Also note that the schemaLocation attribute belongs to the XML Schema Instance namespace The value of schemaLocation is a white space
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delimited list of namespace and schema locations It s like saying validate elements that belong to the http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples namespace using the schema at C:\schemas\examplesxsd Here s what it would look like if you had elements from two different namespaces in your document:
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<!-- using schemaLocation with multiple namespaces --> <example xmlns="http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples" xmlns:bk="http://schemasdevxpertcom/books" xmlns:xsi=" http://wwww3org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples C:\schemas\examplesxsd http://schemasdevxpertcom/books C:\schemas\booksxsd"> <elem1>some text</elem1> <elem2>more text</elem2> <bk:another>This element belongs to another namespace</bk:another> </example>
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Note that the element <another> belongs to the namespace http://schemasdevxpertcom/books and that schemaLocation associates that namespace with the schema document C:\schemas\booksxsd The schema location is actually a URL, so you could have your schema out on the Web somewhere and point to it by its URL:
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<!-- schema Location on the Web --> <example xmlns="http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples" xmlns:xsi=" http://wwww3org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples http://myservermydomaincom/examplesxsd "> <elem1>some text</elem1> <elem2>more text</elem2> </example>
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The above example maps the namespace http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples to the schema at http://myservermydomaincom/examplesxsd Note that although both are URLs, http://schemasdevxpertcom/examples is just simply a namespace (a unique string) while http://myservermydomaincom/examplesxsd is a URL that points to the XSD document
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Programmatic Validation Your Web service methods may receive data as XML documents For example, your Web service may expose a method for submitting an XML invoice document:
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Public Function SubmitInvoice(ByVal invoice As String) As Integer End Function
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Of course you ll want to programmatically validate the input invoice document before you actually process it To do this you use a validating parser VB 6 applications can use the MSXML 40 parser which supports XSD validation NET applications use the SystemXmlXmlValidatingReader which is a streaming parser that supports XSD-based validation There are two example applications that show you how to do XML validation: XMLValidator6 and XMLValidator XMLValidator6, shown in listing 2-1, uses the MSXML 40 parser to load the specified XML document and validate it Listing 2-2-1 Validating with MSXML 40
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Private Sub GetNamespace()
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'tries to guess the namespace URI 'it uses the document element's namespace Dim doc As New MSXML2DOMDocument If Not docLoad(txtXMLText) Then MsgBox "Could not load XML document: " & docparseErrorreason Exit Sub End If 'use document element's namespaceURI by default txtNS = docdocumentElementnamespaceURI End Sub '___________________________________________ 'validate document Private Sub cmdValidate_Click()
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