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Enable runtime integer error checks using /RTCc, which reports when a value is assigned to a smaller data type and results in a data loss The /RTC option should be used only for debugging purposes and cannot be used in production builds or with /O compiler optimization ags GCC These best practices for GCC come from GNU: Compile with integer-relevant options enabled, and be vigilant for compiler warnings they generate -Wconversion Warn on a variety of potentially problematic type conversions, including conversions between xed and oating-point numbers and implicit conversions of a signed constant to an unsigned type -Wsign-compare Warn when a signed value can be converted to an unsigned value and cause a comparison to produce incorrect results Investigate all uses of #pragma GCC diagnostic ignored option that disable integer-relevant compiler warnings Be equally cautious of explicit casts that can suppress instances of the same set of warnings If any are found, comment them out and recompile to check for instances of the aforementioned warnings Enable runtime integer error checks using -ftrapv, which generates traps for signed over ow on addition, subtraction, and multiplication operations Like /RTC on Microsoft compilers, -ftrapv usually cannot be used in production builds because of the performance penalty it incurs Understand Integer Conversion Rules It s difficult to avoid being burned by an unexpected type conversion, but education is the best defense The C99 standard mandates a complex set of rules governing the way type conversion should be handled [ISO C99, 2005] The rules are of sufficient length and complexity that most people don t commit them all to memory, but two basic points are worth remembering First, in an operation involving more than one data type, the data type that offers less precision is typically upcast, which can cause unexpected changes in the way the value is represented Second, an unsigned value can be implicitly cast to a larger signed type if the signed type can represent all the possible values of the unsigned type This could cause an integer overflow to occur in operations that appear safe because the range
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of the unsigned type might be insufficient to handle the result of the operation Verify Pre- and Post-Conditions for Operators That Can Over ow Of the large number of integer operators provided in C and C++, many can contribute to integer over ow vulnerabilities Consider Table 71, which provides a listing of the standard C and C++ operators that can result in over ow or under ow For any operator in the two left columns, some form of check must occur either before or after the operation is performed to ensure that it does not lead to an unexpected result The operators in the two right columns can be safely excluded from integer over ow checks
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Table 71 Standard C and C++ operators that can contribute to integer over ow vulnerabilities and those that cannot Overflow Possible + * / ++ -+= -= *= /= <<= >>= << >> unary Overflow Impossible % = %= &= |= ^= & | ^ ~ ! unary + < > >= <= == != && || :
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If using unsigned data types and performing simple upper-bounds checks are suf cient for your needs, that is by far the preferable solution If these checks are too numerous or too dif cult to get right, you should consider leveraging a library designed to prevent integer over ow Microsoft provides two libraries for this purpose: SafeInt and IntSafe Beyond their confoundingly similar names, these libraries are overly complicated for most environments However, depending on the complexity of the
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