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Continued Table 66 Common Library Functions Banned in the Strsafe and Safe C/C++ Libraries Banned API strcpy, wcscpy, _tcscpy, _mbscpy, lstrcpy, lstrcpyA, lstrcpyW, strcpyA, strcpyW strcat, wcscat Strsafe Safe C/C++
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StringCchCopy, StringCbCopy, strcpy_s StringCchCopyEx, StringCbCopyEx StringCchCat, StringCbCat, StringCchCatEx, StringCbCatEx StringCchPrintf, StringCbPrintf, StringCchPrintfEx, StirngCbPrintfEx StringCchPrintf, StringCbPrintf, StringCchPrintfEx, StirngCbPrintfEx StringCchVPrintf, StringCbVPrintf, StringCchVPrintfEx, StirngCbVPrintfEx StringCchVPrintf, StringCbVPrintf, StringCchVPrintfEx, StirngCbVPrintfEx StringCchCopyN, StringCbCopyN, StringCchCopyNEx, StringCbCopyNEx StringCchCatN, StringCbCatN, StringCchCatNEx, StringCbCatNEx None StringCchLength, StringCbLength strcat_s
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In non-Microsoft environments, the task of banning dangerous functions is not hard, either The following header le entries rede ne a handful of inherently dangerous functions with the pre x unsafe_, which turns calls to these functions into compile warnings and link errors
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In legacy systems, compiler-enforced bans might be too drastic In these situations, consider using a static analysis tool with structural rules set to a high severity level to enforce the security policy until all the calls in question have been replaced When most of the bad calls have been removed, move up the ladder and nish the job using the compiler to enforce the ban For example, use the following rule to ag all uses of
strcpy() as high-severity vulnerabilities:
Structural rule:
FunctionCall: function is [name == "strcpy"] Severity: high
The default rule set provided with a good static analysis engine should unconditionally ag functions such as the ones in Table 66 as potentially dangerous Although these unconditional warnings do not require complex analysis capabilities, the presence of calls to these functions suggest that the code was written by someone who was not overly concerned about security
Common Pitfalls with Bounded Functions Bounded string functions are safer than unbounded functions, but there s still plenty of room for error This section covers the following common pitfalls programmers encounter with bounded string functions: The destination buffer over ows because the bound depends on the size of the source data rather than the size of the destination buffer The destination buffer is left without a null terminator, often as a result of an off-by-one error
6 Buffer Over ow
The destination buffer over ows because its bound is speci ed as the total size of the buffer rather than the space remaining The program writes to an arbitrary location in memory because the destination buffer is not null-terminated and the function begins writing at the location of the rst null character in the destination buffer We rst propose guidelines for avoiding these pitfalls with two of the most often misused bounded string-manipulation functions: strncpy() and strncat() Then we address the broader topic of truncation errors, which can occur even when bounded functions are used correctly
strncpy()
David Wagner and a group of students at UC Berkeley (Jacob was one of them) identi ed a series of common misuses of strncpy() (see Table 67 for a description of strncpy()) and used static analysis to identify instances of these errors in open source code [Schwarz et al, 2005] The errors are representative of the types of mistakes related to strncpy() that we see in the eld, which can be divided into two high-level groups: A call to strncpy() writes past the end of its destination buffer because its bound depends on the size of the source buffer rather than the size of the destination buffer The destination buffer used in a call to strncpy() is left unterminated, either because no terminator is written to the buffer or because the null terminator is overwritten by the call to strncpy() To avoid common errors with strncpy(), follow two simple guidelines: Use a safe bound Bound calls to strncpy() with a value derived from the size of the destination buffer Manually null-terminate Null-terminate the destination buffer immediately after calling strncpy()