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Generator Code 39 in Java Code from Tomcat that allows unvalidated input to be included in a log entry
Example 536 Code from Tomcat that allows unvalidated input to be included in a log entry
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public void invoke(Request request, Response response) throws IOException, ServletException { Log log = containergetLogger(); // Log pre-service information loginfo("REQUEST URI= " + requestgetRequestURI()); loginfo(" authType=" + requestgetAuthType()); loginfo(" characterEncoding=" + requestgetCharacterEncoding()); loginfo(" contentLength=" + requestgetContentLength()); loginfo(" contentType=" + requestgetContentType()); loginfo(" contextPath=" + requestgetContextPath()); Cookie cookies[] = requestgetCookies(); if (cookies != null) { for (int i = 0; i < cookieslength; i++) loginfo("cookie=" + cookies[i]getName() + "=" + cookies[i]getValue()); }
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In our experience, debugging will be enabled in production, either accidentally or purposefully, at some point in the lifetime of most applications Do not excuse log forging vulnerabilities simply because a programmer says, I don t have any plans to turn that on once we ship We understand that the Tomcat project has chosen not to x this vulnerability Developers do their users a disservice both by not adhering to secure logging practices and by not disclosing that their debugging facilities pose a security risk One way to prevent log forging vulnerabilities is to encode data before going to the log le Example 537 repairs the code in Example 535 by URL-encoding the request data before logging them
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Example 537 Vulnerable code from Example 533 modi ed to URL-encode data in log entries
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String val = requestgetParameter("val"); try { int value = IntegerparseInt(val); } catch (NumberFormatException) { loginfo("Failed to parse val = " + URLEncoderencode(val, "UTF8")); }
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It s easy to say Don t trust input, but it takes real effort to determine all the implicit ways a program might be putting unwarranted faith in some aspect of its input Getting input validation right requires all of the following: Identify all the program s input sources; it s invariably more than just the primary user interface or the network connection Make sure you consider all the ways your program interacts with its environment, including the command line, environment variables, dynamic libraries, and temporary storage Choose the right approach to performing input validation Use a strategy such as indirect selection or whitelisting that focuses on identifying input that is known to be good Avoid blacklisting, in which the nearly impossible objective is to try to identify all the things that could possibly be bad At a minimum, be sure that you always check input length and,
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for numeric input, maximum and minimum values Reject data that fail validation checks; don t try to x that data Track which input values have been validated and what properties that validation checked If your program has well-established trust boundaries, this is easy Make it hard to violate trust boundaries by building input validation into the code that the program uses to move data around This kind of checking usually won t come in prepackaged I/O libraries, so you ll need to create security-enhanced APIs to make good input validation the default Keep an eye out for the way different components interpret the data your program pass along Don t allow attackers to hijack your requests to the le system, database, or Web browser, among others This usually entails some careful thinking about metacharacters and data encodings
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And you may ask yourself: Well, how did I get here And you may tell yourself My god! What have I done Talking Heads
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early everyone who uses computers regularly recognizes the name buffer over ow Many in the software industry understand that the vulnerability involves cramming too much data into too small of a buffer For many cases, that s a pretty accurate understanding A buffer over ow occurs when a program writes data outside the bounds of allocated memory Buffer over ow vulnerabilities are usually exploited to overwrite values in memory to the advantage of the attacker Buffer over ow mistakes are plentiful, and they often give an attacker a great deal of control over the vulnerable code It's little wonder that they are such a common target of attacks In this chapter, we explain how a simple buffer overflow exploit works, show real-world examples that demonstrate many common coding errors that lead to buffer overflow vulnerabilities, and give advice for building software that is less likely to allow a buffer overflow Through most of the chapter, our advice is tactical: We look at typical coding problems, their ramifications, and their solutions Much of this chapter is focused on buffer overflow vulnerabilities related to string manipulation The next chapter tackles integer operations that often cause buffer overflows in a similar manner and then concludes by looking at some strategic approaches to solving the buffer overflow problem The chapter breaks down like this: Introduction to buffer over ow We show how buffer over ows work and detail the risks they introduce We cover some common code patterns that lead to buffer over ow Strings Many buffer over ow vulnerabilities are related to string manipulation We look at common string handling mistakes and best practices to get strings right
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