Static Analysis Internals in Java

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4 Static Analysis Internals
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Example 410 A rule from RATS: calling system() is a risk if the rst argument is not a string literal
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<Vulnerability> <Name>system</Name> <InputProblem> <Arg>1</Arg> <Severity>High</Severity> </InputProblem> </Vulnerability>
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Example 411 shows a rule from Fortify Source Code Analysis (SCA) The rule also detects command injection vulnerabilities related to calling system(), but this rule res only if there is a path through the program through which an attacker could control the rst argument and if that argument value has not been validated to prevent command injection The Fortify rule contains more metadata than the RATS example, including a unique rule identi er and kingdom, category, and subcategory elds As in the RATS example, it contains a default severity associated with violating the rule It also contains a link to a textual description of the problem addressed by the rule
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Example 411 A rule from Fortify Source Code Analysis Calling system() is a risk if the rst argument can be controlled by an attacker and has not been validated
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<DataflowSinkRule formatVersion="32" language="cpp"> <MetaInfo><Group name="package">C Core</Group></MetaInfo> <RuleID>AA212456-92CD-48E0-A5D5-E74CC26A276F</RuleID> <VulnKingdom>Input Validation and Representation</VulnKingdom> <VulnCategory>Command Injection</VulnCategory> <DefaultSeverity>40</DefaultSeverity> <Description ref="descdataflowcppcommand_injection"/> <Sink> <InArguments>0</InArguments> <Conditional> <Not> <TaintFlagSet taintFlag="VALIDATED_COMMAND_INJECTION"/> </Not> </Conditional> </Sink> <FunctionIdentifier> <FunctionName><Value>system</Value></FunctionName> </FunctionIdentifier> </DataflowSinkRule>
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Annotations In some cases, it is preferable to have rules appear directly in the text of the program, in the form of annotations If special rules govern the use of a particular module, putting the rules directly in the module (or the header le for the module) is a good way to make sure that the rules are applied whenever the module is used Annotations are often more concise than rules that appear in external les because they do not have to explain the context they apply to; an annotation s context is provided by the code around it For example, instead of having to specify the name of a function, an annotation can simply appear just before the function declaration This tight binding to the source code has its disadvantages, too For example, if the people performing the analysis are not the owners or maintainers of the code, they might not be allowed to add permanent annotations One might be able to overcome this sort of limitation by creating special source les that contain annotations almost exclusively and using these source les only for the purpose of analysis Languages such as Java and C# have a special syntax for annotations For languages that do not have an annotation syntax, annotations usually take the form of specially formatted comments Example 412 shows an annotation written in the Java Modeling Language (JML) Although Sun has added syntax for annotations as of Java 15, annotations for earlier versions of Java must be written in comments Annotations are useful for more than just static analysis A number of dynamic analysis tools can also use JML annotations
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Example 412 A speci cation for the javaioReader method read() written in JML The speci cation requires the reader to be in a valid state when read() is called It stipulates that a call to read() can change the state of the reader, and it ensures that the return value is in the range 1 to 65535
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/*@ public normal_behavior @ requires valid; @ assignable state; @ ensures -1 <= \result && \result <= 65535; @*/ public int read();
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Bill Pugh, a professor at the University of Maryland and one of the authors and maintainers of FindBugs, has proposed a set of standard Java 15 annotations such as @NonNull and @CheckForNull that would be useful
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4 Static Analysis Internals
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for static analysis tools [Pugh, 2006] The proposal might grow to include annotations for taint propagation, concurrency, and internationalization Microsoft has its own version of source annotation: the Microsoft Standard Annotation Language (SAL) SAL works with the static analysis option built into Visual Studio 2005 You can use it to specify the ways a function uses and modi es its parameters, and the relationships that exist between parameters SAL makes it particularly easy to state that the value of one parameter is used as the buffer size of another parameter, a common occurrence in C Example 413 shows a function prototype annotated with SAL Quite a few of the commonly used header les that ship with Visual Studio include SAL annotations
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Example 413 A function prototype annotated with Microsoft s SAL The annotation (in bold) indicates that the function will write to the variable buf but not read from it, and that the parameter sz gives the number of elements in buf
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int fillBuffer( __out_ecount(sz) char* buf, size_t sz );
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Other Rule Formats Another approach to rule writing is to expose the static analysis engine s data structures and algorithms programmatically FindBugs allows programmers to create native plug-ins that the analysis engine loads at runtime To add a new bug pattern, a programmer writes a new visitor class and drops it in the plug-ins directory FindBugs instantiates the class and passes it a handle to each class in the program being analyzed Although a plug-in approach to rule writing is quite flexible, it sets a high bar for authors: A rule writer must understand both the kind of defect he or she wants to detect and the static analysis techniques necessary to detect it One of the rst static analysis tools we wrote was a checker that looked for testability problems in hardware designs written in Verilog (Brian wrote it back when he worked at Hewlett-Packard) It used a scripting language to expose its analysis capabilities Users could write TCL scripts and call into a set of functions for exploring and manipulating the program representation This approach requires less expertise on the part of rule writers, but user feedback was largely negative Users made alterations to the default rule
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