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111 Privacy and Regulation
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Concurrency problems shortcomings with the management of time and state can also lead to privacy violations Programming for concurrency is difficult, but the problem is made even more difficult when it is not obvious that information will be shared between execution threads Example 112 shows one such scenario Many Java Servlet programmers do not understand that, unless a Servlet implements the SingleThreadModel interface, the Servlet is a singleton; there is only one instance of the Servlet, and that single instance is used and reused to handle multiple requests that different threads process simultaneously Servlets aren t the only place Java programs share state in unexpected ways Some forms of Enterprise Java Beans (EJBs) are shared between threads, as are class-scope variables in Java Server Pages A common result of the Servlet misunderstanding is that programmers use Servlet member elds in such a way that one user can inadvertently see another user s data In other words, storing user data in Servlet member elds introduces a data access race condition Similar race conditions occur in other places where programmers are unaware that an object is shared between threads Although the code in Example 112 will work perfectly in a single-user environment, if two users access the Servlet at about the same time, it is possible for the two request handler threads to interleave and reveal the second user s name to the rst user The following shows an order of events that discloses one user s name to the other user Thread 1: Thread 2: Thread 1: Thread 2: Assign Dick to name Assign Jane to name Print Jane, thanks for visiting! Print Jane, thanks for visiting!
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Example 112 Servlet member elds are shared between threads, so this Servlet runs the risk of disclosing a user s name
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public class GuestBook extends HttpServlet { String name; protected void doPost (HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res) { responsesetContentType("text/html"); PrintWriter out = responsegetWriter(); name = reqgetParameter("name");
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outprintln(name + ", thanks for visiting!"); outclose(); } }
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Security and privacy concerns often seem to compete with one another The trade-off arises from the fact that, from a security perspective, you should record all important operations so that any anomalous activity can be investigated later However, when private data are involved, this practice creates additional risk When good record-keeping and privacy demands clash, privacy should usually be given the higher priority To accomplish this and still maintain the information required by security demands, cleanse any private information before it exits the program Build this behavior into the methods responsible for creating log entries and displaying error messages Recall Example 111, which demonstrated a utility method that contains a privacy violation caused by logging private data Nothing about the method s intended functionality indicates how it will handle private data, which makes identifying this sort of privacy violation more difficult than when private information is passed directly to a logging method or other means of escape from the system Privacy violations such as this one occur regularly in utility methods because there is often little or no connection between the developer who maintains the utility method and the method s eventual users This problem typically receives one of three half-hearted solutions: Do not use utility methods such as execSQL() for queries that contain confidential information This requires execSQL() to advertise that it is not appropriate for queries that contain confidential information (perhaps with JavaDoc) and for developers to pay attention to the documentation Pass a ag to execSQL() that controls the logging behavior The down side is that rarely used ags that have subtle side effects are prone to being misused or neglected entirely Create a logger that knows how to censor confidential data This requires the logger to be capable of identifying confidential data in arbitrary strings It might be possible to identify confidential data
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