Errors and Exceptions in Java

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Static Analysis: Just Because It Happens a Lot Doesn t Mean It s Okay
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Its easy to use a static analysis tool to identify poor error handling structures in a program, such as methods that throw Exception, catch blocks that catch Exception, or empty catch blocks The following rules do it for Java:
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Function f: exceptionTypes contains [Type e: (ename == "javalangException" or ename == "javalangThrowable")
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CatchBlock: (exceptiontypename == "javalangException" or exceptiontypename == "javalangThrowable" or exceptiontypename == "javalangError" or exceptiontypename == "javalangRuntimeException") and not contains [ThrowStatement: ]
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However, repairing these problems is another matter We routinely see large programs that have hundreds or thousands of problems related to the way they treat exceptions Fixing all these problems is time consuming Instead of digging in and trying to repair the code one issue at a time or throwing up your hands and ignoring everything, take a long list of exception-related static analysis results as a sign that the program needs a new strategy for exception handling When you can articulate an exception handling strategy, xing the code will be much easier
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Preventing Resource Leaks
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Failing to release resources, including database objects, le handles, or sockets, can cause serious performance problems The cause of these problems can be hard to track down They tend to surface only sporadically, usually
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Preventing Resource Leaks
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under unusual circumstances or when the system is under heavy load, and the resulting error message could be hard to trace back to the location where the resource was leaked In simple cases, a call to close() is completely omitted More often, though, the problem has to do with code paths that are infrequently used, which often involve error conditions or exceptions In C, C++, and any other language with manual memory management, heap-allocated memory must be freed in the same way other resources must be released The solution is almost identical, regardless of the resource involved We give examples related to heap-allocated memory, le handles, and database connections, but the same patterns apply to all kinds of resources The explicit security rami cations of mismanaged resources are slight An attacker will certainly have an easier time launching a denial-of-service attack if the program mismanages resources, but we cover the topic here because we frequently encounter resource management bugs when performing a security code review The problems that result from resource leaks are similar to security problems in that they can be hard to identify and track down via traditional testing methods Weimer and Necula at UC Berkeley have worked on automated mechanisms for correcting poor error handling in Java applications, particularly with respect to unreleased resources [Weimer and Necula, 2004] Using their system to improve the way resources were released, they were able to measure a 17% performance gain in Sun s popular sample application, PetStore In addition to this marked improvement in performance, the application exhibited more consistent performance from one run to the next Whether you classify resource leaks as a security risk because they might permit a denial-of-service attack or as a general quality problem because of their likely performance implications, the solution is the same: Make your resource management systematic Because of the connection between errorhandling code and resource leaks, error handling patterns must explicitly address resource management properly under all conditions, not just the expected ones Next we give examples of resource leaks and discuss good resource management patterns and idioms for preventing them in C, C++, and Java C and C++ In C programs, look for multiple return statements in the body of a single function This is usually an indicator of distributed error handling code, which is a breeding ground for resource leaks The code in Example 812
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