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The Java Native Interface (JNI) allows native code to create, access, and modify Java objects When Java programs use JNI to call code written in an unsafe programming language such as C, the guarantee of memory safety that Java provides goes out the window, and buffer over ow vulnerabilities once again become possible Even in native code that does not interact with Java objects, buffer over ow vulnerabilities can compromise the integrity of the JVM because the native code executes in the same address space as the JVM The following Java code de nes a class named Echo The class declares one native method (de ned below), which uses C to echo commands entered on the console back to the user
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class Echo { public native void runEcho(); static { SystemloadLibrary("echo"); } public static void main(String[] args) { new Echo()runEcho(); } }
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The following C code implements the native method de ned in the Echo class The code is vulnerable to a buffer over ow vulnerability caused by an unbounded call to
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#include <jnih> #include "Echoh" // Echo class compiled with javah #include <stdioh> JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_Echo_runEcho(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj) { char buf[64]; gets(buf); printf(buf); }
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Vulnerabilities in native code called from a Java program can be exploited in the same ways as in pure C or C++ programs The only added challenge to an attacker is to identify that the Java application uses native code to perform certain operations, which can be accomplished by identifying speci c behaviors that are often implemented
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natively or by exploiting a system information leak in the Java application that exposes its use of JNI Don t be lulled into a false sense of security just because 99% of your program is implemented in Java If your program uses JNI to access native code, ensure that you implement proper input validation and bounds checks in both languages to prevent the introduction of buffer over ow vulnerabilities In particular, verify that shared objects are handled correctly at all stages: before they are passed to native code, while they are manipulated by native code, and after they are returned to the Java application
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Safer C Dialects Various safe dialects of C have been designed and implemented in academic circles but are not widely used in industry Two projects, in particular, CCured from UC Berkeley, and Cyclone from research started at Cornell University, are reasonably mature and have been applied successfully to nontrivial code bases Both tools ensure memory safety by introducing runtime checks around potentially dangerous memory operations The tools are available at http://manjucsberkeleyedu/ccured/ and http://cyclonethelanguageorg, respectively CCured uses static analysis to identify the kinds of operations that are performed on each pointer in standard C programs and classi es pointers into one of several metatypes based on this information These pointer metatypes dictate the runtime checks that are inserted to ensure that operations on the pointer do not violate memory safety The metatypes re ect the types of operations that the program performs on the pointer, and CCured knows to omit unnecessary runtime checks for pointers that are not manipulated in certain unsafe ways, such as pointer arithmetic or casts between types This optimization can have signi cant performance bene ts if many of the pointers in a program are manipulated only in relatively simple ways The rst part of Example 79 shows a simple block of C code before and after processing with CCured [CCured, 2006] The most notable change is that the pointer declarations have been changed to type seq_int, which indicates to CCured that they are sequence pointers, which can be incremented using pointer arithmetic but cannot be cast unsafely When CCured sees a sequence pointer, it stores the additional bounds information necessary for
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