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By default, Java 3D coordinate systems are right-handed, with the orientation semantics being that +Y is the local gravitational up, +X is horizontal to the right, and +Z is directly toward the viewer The default units are meters
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Double-precision oating-point, single-precision oating-point, or even xedpoint representations of three-dimensional coordinates are suf cient to represent and display rich 3D scenes Unfortunately, scenes are not worlds, let alone universes If one ventures even a hundred miles away from the (00, 00, 00) origin using only single-precision oating-point coordinates, representable points become quite quantized, to at very best a third of an inch (and much more coarsely than that in practice) To shrink down to a small size (say the size of an IC transistor), even very near (00, 00, 00), the same problem arises If a large contiguous virtual universe is to be supported, some form of higher-resolution addressing is required Thus the choice of 256-bit positional components for high-resolution positions
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Java 3D high-resolution coordinates consist of three 256-bit xed-point numbers, one each for x, y, and z The xed point is at bit 128, and the value 10 is de ned to be exactly 1 meter This coordinate system is suf cient to describe a universe in excess of several hundred billion light years across, yet still de ne objects smaller than a proton (down to below the planck length) Table 3-1 shows how many bits are needed above or below the xed point to represent the range of interesting physical dimensions
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Java 3D Virtual World Coordinates Table 3-1 2n Meters 8729 6968 5307 4343 2360 1065 997 000 1993 3322 11557 Java 3D High-Resolution Coordinates Units Universe (20 billion light years) Galaxy (100,000 light years) Light year Solar system diameter Earth diameter Mile Kilometer Meter Micron Angstrom Planck length
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A 256-bit xed-point number also has the advantage of being able to directly represent nearly any reasonable single-precision oating-point value exactly High-resolution coordinates in Java 3D are only used to embed more traditional oating point coordinate systems within a much higher-resolution substrate In this way a visually seamless virtual universe of any conceivable size or scale can be created, without worry about numerical accuracy
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Within a given virtual world coordinate system, positions are expressed by three oating point numbers The virtual world coordinate scale is in meters, but this can be affected by scale changes in the object hierarchy
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High-resolution coordinates are represented as signed, two s-complement, xedpoint numbers consisting of 256 bits Although Java 3D keeps the internal representation of high-resolution coordinates opaque, users specify such coordinates using 8-element integer arrays Java 3D treats the integer found at index 0 as containing the most signi cant bits and that found at index 7 as containing the least signi cant bits of the high-resolution coordinate The binary point is located at bit position 128, or between the integers at index 3 and 4 A high-resolution coordinate of 10 is 1 meter
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The semantics of how le loaders deal with high-resolution coordinates is up to the individual le loader, as Java 3D does not directly de ne any le-loading semantics However, some general advice can be given (note that this advice is not of cially part of the Java 3D speci cation) For small virtual universes (on the order of hundreds of meters across in relative scale), a single Locale with high-resolution coordinates at location (00, 00, 00) as the root node (below the VirtualUniverse object) is suf cient; a loader can automatically construct this node during the loading process, and the point in high-resolution coordinates does not need any direct representation in the external le Larger virtual universes are expected to be usually constructed like computer directory hierarchies, that is, as a root virtual universe containing mostly external le references to embedded virtual universes In this case, the le reference object (user-speci c data hung off a Java 3D group or hi-res node) de nes the location for the data to be read into the current virtual universe The data le s contents should be parented to the le object node while being read, thus inheriting the high-resolution coordinates of the le object as the new relative virtual universe origin of the embedded scene graph If this scene graph itself contains high-resolution coordinates, it will need to be offset (translated) by the amount in the le object s high-resolution coordinates, and then added to the larger virtual universe as new high-resolution coordinates, with their contents hung off below them Once again, the above procedure is not part of the of cial Java 3D speci cation, but some more details on the care and use of high-resolution coordinates in external le formats will probably be available as a Java 3D application note Authoring tools that directly support high-resolution coordinates should create additional high-resolution coordinates as a user creates new geometry suf ciently far away (or of different scale) from existing high-resolution coordinates Semantics of widely moving objects Most xed and nearly- xed objects stay attached to the same high-resolution Locale Objects that make wide changes in position or scale may need to be periodically reparented to more appropriate high-resolution Locale If no appropriate high-resolution Locale exists, the application may need to create a new one Semantics of viewing The ViewPlatform object and the associated nodes in its hierarchy are very often widely moving objects Applications will typically attach the view platform to the most appropriate high-resolution Locale For display, all objects will rst have their positions translated by the difference
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