18: RSpec in Java

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18: RSpec
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block, which arguably has no business setting up a bunch variables in the first place And three, it shows you who the players are A set of let blocks at the top of an example group reads like a cast of characters in a playbill You can always refer to it when you re deep in the code of an example
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1823 let!(:name) {expression}
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There are instances where the lazy evaluation of let will not suffice and you need the value memoized immediately This is found often in cases of integration testing, and is where let! comes into play
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describe BlogPost do let(:blog_post) { BlogPostcreate :title => 'Hello' } let!(:comment) { blog_postcommentscreate :text => 'first post' } describe "#comment" do before do blog_postcomment("finally got a first post") end it "adds the comment" do blog_postcommentscountshould == 2 end end end
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Since the comment block would never have been executed for the first assertion if you used a let definition, only one comment would have been added in this spec even though the implementation may be working By using let! we ensure the initial comment gets created and the spec will now pass
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1824 before and after
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The before (and its reclusive cousin, after) methods are akin to the setup and teardown methods of xUnit frameworks like Test::Unit They are used to set up the state as it should be prior to running an example, and if necessary, to clean up the state after the example has run None of the example behaviors we ve seen so far required an after block, because frankly, it s rare to need after in Rails programming Before and after code can be inserted in any describe or context blocks, and by default they execute for each it block that shares their scope
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182 Basic Syntax and API
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1825 it
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The it method also takes a description plus a block, similar to describe As mentioned, the idea is to complete the thought that was started in the describe method, so that it forms a complete sentence Your assertions (aka expectations) will always happen within the context of an it block, and you should try to limit yourself to one expectation per it block
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context "when there are no search results" do before do email_search_for(user, '123') end it "shows the search form" do current_urlshould == colleagues_url end it "renders an error message" do responseshould have_tag('error', 'No matching email addresses found') end end
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1826 specify
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The specify method is simply an alias of the it method However, it s mainly used in a different construct to improve readability Consider the following old-school RSpec example:
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describe BlogPost do before { @blog_post = BlogPostnew :title => 'foo' } it "should not be published" do @blog_postshould_not be_published end end
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Note how the example says should not be published in plain English, and the Ruby code within says essentially the same thing: @blog_postshould_not be_published This is a situation where specify comes in handy Examine a new-school example:
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describe BlogPost do let(:blog_post) { BlogPostnew :title => 'foo' } specify { blog_postshould_not be_published } end
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The English phrase has been removed, and the Ruby code has been move into a block passed to the specify method Since the Ruby block already reads like English, there s no need to repeat yourself Especially since RSpec automatically (which is pretty cool) generates English output by inspection Here s what the specdoc output looks like:
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BlogPost - should not be published
1827 expect
When you expect a method call to change a value or throw an exception, then expect is for you Here s an example:
expect { BlogPostcreate :title => 'Hello' }to change { BlogPostcount }by(1)
This is just a more readable DSL-style version of the RSpec s older lambda-based syntax:
lambda { BlogPostcreate :title => 'Hello' }should change { BlogPostcount }by(1)
Simply put, expect is an alias of the lambda keyword and the to method is an alias of the should method Then comes the change matcher This is where you inspect the attribute or value that you re interested in In our example, we re making sure that the record was saved to the database, thus increasing the record count by 1 There are a few different variations on the change syntax Here s one more example, where we re more explicit about before and after values by further chaining from and to methods:
describe "#publish!" do let(:blog_post) { BlogPostcreate :title => 'Hello' } it "updates published_on date" do expect { blog_postpublish! }to change { blog_postpublished_on }from(nil)to(Datetoday) end end
Here the published_on attribute is examined both before and after invocation of the expect block This style of change assertion comes in handy when you want to ensure a precondition of the value Asserting from guarantees a known starting point